United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service

National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28
Statistics Report:  11457, Spinach, raw
heading Nutrient Unit Value (100g) Data Points Std. Error Min Max df LB UB # Studies Source NDB Ref Last Modified
Proximates Water g 91.40 1 -- 87.75 94.16 15.0 -- -- 7 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 09/2002
Proximates Energy kcal 23 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 10/2008
Proximates Energy kJ 97 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 10/2008
Proximates Protein g 2.86 9 0.112 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Proximates Total lipid (fat) g 0.39 7 0.032 0.25 0.5 6.0 0.311 0.466 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Proximates Ash g 1.72 8 0.035 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Proximates Carbohydrate, by difference g 3.63 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 10/2008
Proximates Fiber, total dietary g 2.2 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Proximates Sugars, total g 0.42 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 10/2008
Proximates Sucrose g 0.07 8 0.036 0 0.3 7.0 -0.016 0.153 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Proximates Glucose (dextrose) g 0.11 8 0.032 0.02 0.3 7.0 0.03 0.183 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Proximates Fructose g 0.15 8 0.070 0 0.51 7.0 -0.02 0.312 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Proximates Lactose g 0.00 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Proximates Maltose g 0.00 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Proximates Galactose g 0.10 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Minerals Calcium, Ca mg 99 9 4.996 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Minerals Iron, Fe mg 2.71 10 0.522 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Minerals Magnesium, Mg mg 79 7 4.794 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Minerals Phosphorus, P mg 49 7 3.479 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Minerals Potassium, K mg 558 10 28.703 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Minerals Sodium, Na mg 79 10 10.835 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Minerals Zinc, Zn mg 0.53 7 0.039 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Minerals Copper, Cu mg 0.130 7 0.007 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Minerals Manganese, Mn mg 0.897 6 0.048 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Minerals Selenium, Se µg 1.0 5 0.335 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/1992
Vitamins Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid mg 28.1 7 4.129 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Vitamins Thiamin mg 0.078 9 0.008 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Vitamins Riboflavin mg 0.189 9 0.008 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Vitamins Niacin mg 0.724 9 0.032 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Vitamins Pantothenic acid mg 0.065 6 0.008 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Vitamins Vitamin B-6 mg 0.195 6 0.008 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Vitamins Folate, total µg 194 6 35.597 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Vitamins Folic acid µg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 01/2001
Vitamins Folate, food µg 194 6 35.597 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Vitamins Folate, DFE µg 194 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 10/2008
Vitamins Choline, total mg 19.3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed 11463 10/2008
Vitamins Betaine mg 102.6 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed 11463 10/2008
Vitamins Vitamin B-12 µg 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/1984
Vitamins Vitamin B-12, added µg 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/2004
Vitamins Vitamin A, RAE µg 469 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Vitamins Retinol µg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/2002
Vitamins Carotene, beta 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 µg 5626 5 766.716 3,970 8,900 5.0 3655.43 7597.24 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Vitamins Carotene, alpha 2, 3, 4, 5 µg 0 4 0.000 0 0 4.0 -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Vitamins Cryptoxanthin, beta 2, 4, 5 µg 0 4 0.000 0 0 3.0 -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Vitamins Vitamin A, IU IU 9377 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Vitamins Lycopene 4, 5 µg 0 7 0.000 0 0 2.0 -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Vitamins Lutein + zeaxanthin 4, 5 µg 12198 7 1930.873 9,500 15,940 2.0 3890.459 20506.208 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Vitamins Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) mg 2.03 7 0.152 1.41 2.7 6.0 1.662 2.404 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Vitamins Vitamin E, added mg 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/2004
Vitamins Tocopherol, beta mg 0.00 7 0.000 0 0 6.0 -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Vitamins Tocopherol, gamma mg 0.18 7 0.036 0 0.31 6.0 0.091 0.269 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Vitamins Tocopherol, delta mg 0.00 7 0.000 0 0 6.0 -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Vitamins Vitamin D (D2 + D3) µg 0.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 11/2008
Vitamins Vitamin D IU 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 02/2009
Vitamins Vitamin K (phylloquinone) µg 482.9 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids Fatty acids, total saturated g 0.063 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 10/2008
Lipids 4:0 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 6:0 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 8:0 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 10:0 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 12:0 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 14:0 g 0.010 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 16:0 g 0.049 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 18:0 g 0.004 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids Fatty acids, total monounsaturated g 0.010 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 10/2008
Lipids 16:1 undifferentiated g 0.005 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 18:1 undifferentiated g 0.005 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 20:1 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 22:1 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated g 0.165 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 10/2008
Lipids 18:2 undifferentiated g 0.026 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 18:3 undifferentiated g 0.138 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 18:4 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 20:4 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 20:5 n-3 (EPA) g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 22:5 n-3 (DPA) g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids 22:6 n-3 (DHA) g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2008
Lipids Fatty acids, total trans g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/2015
Lipids Cholesterol mg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/1984
Lipids Phytosterols mg 9 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Tryptophan g 0.039 19 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Threonine g 0.122 19 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Isoleucine g 0.147 19 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Leucine g 0.223 19 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Lysine g 0.174 23 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Methionine g 0.053 23 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Cystine g 0.035 8 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Phenylalanine g 0.129 19 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Tyrosine g 0.108 8 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Valine g 0.161 19 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Arginine g 0.162 18 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Histidine g 0.064 18 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Alanine g 0.142 7 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Aspartic acid g 0.240 7 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Glutamic acid g 0.343 7 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Glycine g 0.134 7 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Proline g 0.112 6 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Amino Acids Serine g 0.104 7 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1984
Other Alcohol, ethyl g 0.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 04/1985
Other Caffeine mg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/2002
Other Theobromine mg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/2002
Flavones Apigenin 7, 8, 9, 10 mg 0.0 9 0 0 0.01 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Luteolin 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 mg 0.7 10 0.66 0 6.64 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Kaempferol 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 mg 6.4 12 4.43 0 55 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Myricetin 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 mg 0.3 11 0.34 0 3.75 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Quercetin 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 mg 4.0 12 2.37 0 27.22 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Daidzein 14, 15, 16 mg 0.00 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Genistein 14, 15, 16 mg 0.00 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Glycitein 16 mg 0.00 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Total isoflavones 14, 15, 16 mg 0.00 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Formononetin mg 0.00 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Coumestrol mg 0.00 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin dimers 6 mg 0.0 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin trimers 6 mg 0.0 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 4-6mers 6 mg 0.0 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 7-10mers 6 mg 0.0 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin polymers (>10mers) 6 mg 0.0 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --

Sources of Data

1J P Sweeney, A C Marsh Effect of processing on provitamin A in vegetables , 1971 J Am Diet Assoc 59   pp.238-243
2J L Bureau, R J Bushway HPLC determination of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables in the United States , 1986 J Food Sci 52   pp.128-130
3R J Bushway Determination of alpha- and beta-carotene in some raw fruits and vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography , 1986 J Agr Food Chem 34   pp.409-412
4F Khachik, G R Beecher, N F Whittaker Separation, identification and quantification of the major carotenoid and chlorophyll constituents in extracts of several green vegetables by liquid chromatography , 1986 J Agr Food Chem 34   pp.603-616
5F Khachik, M B Goli, G R Beecher, J Holden, W R Lusby, M D Tenoro, M R Barrera Effect of food preparation on qualitative and quantitative distribution of major carotenoid constituents of tomatoes and several green vegetables. , 1992 J. Agric Food Chem 40   pp.390-398
6Hellström, Törrönen, A.R., and Matilla, P.H. Proanthocyanidins in common food products of plant origin , 2009 J. Agric. Food Chem. 57   pp.7899-7906
7Chu, Y-H., Chang, C-L., and Hsu, H-F. Flavonoid content of several vegetables and their antioxidant activity. , 2000 J. Sci. Food Agric. 80   pp.561-566
8Franke, A.A., Custer, L.J., Arakaki, C., and Murphy, S.P. Vitamin C and flavonoid levels of fruits and vegetables consumed in Hawaii. , 2004 J. Food Comp. Anal. 17   pp.1-35
9Hertog, M. G. L., Hollman, P. C. H., and Katan, M. B. Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of 28 vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in The Netherlands. , 1992 J. Agric. Food Chem. 40   pp.2379-2383
10Lugasi, A., and Hovari, J. Flavonoid aglycons in foods of plant origin I. Vegetables , 2000 Acta Alimentaria 29   pp.345-352
11Arai, Yusuke, Watanabe, S., Kimira, M., Shimoi, K., Mochizuki, R., and Kinae, N. Dietary intakes of flavonols and isoflavones by Japanese women and inverse correlation between quercetin intake and plasma LDL cholesterol concentration , 2000 J. Nutr. 130   pp.2243-2250
12Kevers, C., Falkowski, M., Tabart, J., Defraigne, J-O., Dommes, J., and Pincemail, J. Evolution of antioxidant capacity during storage of selected fruits and vegetables , 2007 J. Agric. Food Chem. 55   pp.8596-8603
13Nuutila, A.M., Kammiovirta, K., and Oksman-Caldentey, K.-M. Comparison of methods for the hydrolysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids from onion and spinach for HPLC analysis. , 2002 Food Chem. 76 4   pp.519-525
14Horn-Ross, P. L., Barnes, S., Lee, M., Coward, L., Mandel, E., Koo, J., John, E. M., and Smith, M. Assesing phytoestrogen exposure in epidemiologic studies: development of a database (United States). , 2000 Cancer Causes and Control 11   pp.289-298
15Liggins, J., Bluck, L. J. C., Runswick, C., Atkinson, C., Coward, W. A., and Bingham, S. A. Daidzein and genistein content of vegetables. , 2000 Brit. J. Nutr. 84   pp.717-725
16Thompson, L. U., Boucher, B. A., Liu, Z., Cotterchio, M., and Kreiger, N. Phytoestrogen content of foods consumed in Canada, including isoflavones, lignans, and coumestan. , 2006 Nutr. Cancer 54   pp.184-201