United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service

National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Legacy Release
Try FoodData Central Statistics Report:  11282, Onions, raw
heading Nutrient Unit Value (100g) Data Points Std. Error Min Max df LB UB # Studies Source NDB Ref Last Modified
Proximates Water 1 g 89.11 34 0.240 85.57 93.2 3.0 88.31 89.9 6 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Energy kcal 40 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Energy kJ 166 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Protein 1 g 1.10 25 0.030 0.79 1.19 21.0 1.02 1.17 2 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Total lipid (fat) 1 g 0.10 22 0.005 0.02 0.12 3.0 0.08 0.11 3 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Ash 1 g 0.35 24 0.003 0.2 0.43 6.0 0.34 0.35 2 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Carbohydrate, by difference g 9.34 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Fiber, total dietary g 1.7 10 0.048 1.4 1.9 3.0 1.5 1.9 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Sugars, total g 4.24 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Sucrose 1 g 0.99 16 0.050 0.54 2.04 2.0 0.78 1.18 5 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Glucose (dextrose) 1 g 1.97 16 0.050 0.99 2.34 3.0 1.78 2.14 5 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Fructose 1 g 1.29 16 0.050 0.7 1.85 8.0 1.17 1.4 5 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Lactose 1 g 0.00 5 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Maltose 1 g 0.00 5 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Galactose g 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 03/01/2006
Proximates Starch 1 g 0.00 3 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Minerals Calcium, Ca 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 mg 23 89 0.000 10 36 49.0 21.0 23.0 13 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Minerals Iron, Fe 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 mg 0.21 90 0.008 0 0.55 21.0 0.19 0.22 13 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Minerals Magnesium, Mg 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 mg 10 90 0.000 5 13 14.0 9.0 10.0 13 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Minerals Phosphorus, P 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 mg 29 89 0.000 14 41 44.0 28.0 30.0 13 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Minerals Potassium, K 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 mg 146 89 2.000 84 228 42.0 140.0 152.0 13 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Minerals Sodium, Na 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 mg 4 81 0.000 1 8 21.0 3.0 3.0 12 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Minerals Zinc, Zn 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 mg 0.17 90 0.004 0.07 0.28 45.0 0.15 0.17 13 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Minerals Copper, Cu 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 mg 0.039 86 0.002 0.01 0.12 16.0 0.036 0.043 13 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Minerals Manganese, Mn 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 mg 0.129 89 0.004 0.05 0.27 28.0 0.121 0.137 13 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Minerals Selenium, Se 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 µg 0.5 49 0.100 0 4.2 15.0 0.1 0.7 8 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Minerals Fluoride, F 9, 10 µg 1.1 12 0.100 1 1.2 1.0 -0.1 2.3 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid mg 7.4 17 0.053 7.3 8.2 1.0 6.6 8.0 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Thiamin 1 mg 0.046 25 0.001 0.04 0.06 6.0 0.044 0.049 2 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Riboflavin 1 mg 0.027 12 0.002 0.02 0.04 6.0 0.022 0.033 2 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Niacin 1 mg 0.116 15 0.003 0.04 0.15 1.0 0.082 0.15 2 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Pantothenic acid 1 mg 0.123 24 0.002 0.07 0.16 7.0 0.118 0.128 2 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Vitamin B-6 1 mg 0.120 25 0.004 0.06 0.22 7.0 0.11 0.129 2 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Folate, total µg 19 17 0.000 18 25 1.0 17.0 19.0 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Folic acid µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 01/01/2001
Vitamins Folate, food µg 19 17 0.000 18 25 1.0 17.0 19.0 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Folate, DFE µg 19 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 06/01/2006
Vitamins Choline, total 1 mg 6.1 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Betaine 1 mg 0.1 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Vitamin B-12 µg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/01/1984
Vitamins Vitamin B-12, added µg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/01/2004
Vitamins Vitamin A, RAE µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 06/01/2006
Vitamins Retinol µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/01/2002
Vitamins Carotene, beta µg 1 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed 11289 03/01/2006
Vitamins Carotene, alpha µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed 11289 03/01/2006
Vitamins Cryptoxanthin, beta µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed 11289 03/01/2006
Vitamins Vitamin A, IU IU 2 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 06/01/2006
Vitamins Lycopene µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed 11289 03/01/2006
Vitamins Lutein + zeaxanthin µg 4 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed 11289 03/01/2006
Vitamins Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 1 mg 0.02 5 0.000 0.01 0.04 -- -- -- 2 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Vitamin E, added mg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/01/2004
Vitamins Tocopherol, beta 1 mg 0.00 5 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Tocopherol, gamma 1 mg 0.00 5 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Tocopherol, delta 1 mg 0.00 5 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Tocotrienol, alpha 1 mg 0.04 5 0.002 0.01 0.12 1.0 0.01 0.06 2 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Tocotrienol, beta 1 mg 0.00 5 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Tocotrienol, gamma 1 mg 0.00 5 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Tocotrienol, delta 1 mg 0.00 5 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Vitamin D (D2 + D3) µg 0.0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 11/01/2008
Vitamins Vitamin D IU 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 02/01/2009
Vitamins Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 1 µg 0.4 9 0.011 0.2 0.7 1.0 0.2 0.5 4 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 03/01/2006
Lipids Fatty acids, total saturated g 0.042 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 4:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 6:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 8:0 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 10:0 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 12:0 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 14:0 1 g 0.004 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 15:0 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 16:0 1 g 0.034 4 0.003 0.01 0.02 1.0 -0.017 0.047 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 17:0 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 18:0 1 g 0.004 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 20:0 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 22:0 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 24:0 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids Fatty acids, total monounsaturated g 0.013 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 14:1 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 15:1 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 16:1 undifferentiated 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 17:1 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 18:1 undifferentiated 1 g 0.013 4 0.002 0 0.01 1.0 -0.021 0.032 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 20:1 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 22:1 undifferentiated 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated g 0.017 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 18:2 undifferentiated 1 g 0.013 4 0.002 0 0.01 1.0 -0.021 0.032 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 18:3 undifferentiated 1 g 0.004 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 18:4 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 20:2 n-6 c,c 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 20:3 undifferentiated 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 20:4 undifferentiated 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 20:5 n-3 (EPA) 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 22:5 n-3 (DPA) 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids 22:6 n-3 (DHA) 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Lipids Fatty acids, total trans g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/01/2015
Lipids Cholesterol mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/01/1984
Lipids Phytosterols mg 15 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Tryptophan 1 g 0.014 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Threonine 1 g 0.021 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Isoleucine 1 g 0.014 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Leucine 1 g 0.025 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Lysine 1 g 0.039 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Methionine 1 g 0.002 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Cystine 1 g 0.004 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Phenylalanine 1 g 0.025 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Tyrosine 1 g 0.014 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Valine 1 g 0.021 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Arginine 1 g 0.104 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Histidine 1 g 0.014 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Alanine 1 g 0.021 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Aspartic acid 1 g 0.091 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Glutamic acid 1 g 0.258 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Glycine 1 g 0.025 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Proline 1 g 0.012 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Serine 1 g 0.021 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Other Alcohol, ethyl g 0.0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 03/01/2006
Other Caffeine mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 07/01/2002
Other Theobromine mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 07/01/2002
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Catechin 11, 12 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 11, 12 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 11, 12 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 3-gallate 11, 12 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate 11, 12 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Gallocatechin 11, 12 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Apigenin 13, 14, 15, 16 mg 0.0 19 0 0 0.01 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Luteolin 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 mg 0.0 20 0.01 0 0.19 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Isorhamnetin 18, 19 mg 5.0 43 0.69 1.26 7.16 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Kaempferol 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23 mg 0.7 25 0.1 0 1.41 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Myricetin 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 23 mg 0.0 21 0.01 0 0.3 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Quercetin 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 mg 20.3 400 0.78 1.5 90.75 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Daidzein 34, 35 mg 0.00 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Genistein 34, 35 mg 0.00 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Total isoflavones 34, 35 mg 0.00 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin dimers 31, 32, 33 mg 0.0 5 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin trimers 31, 32, 33 mg 0.0 5 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 4-6mers 32, 33 mg 0.0 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 7-10mers 32, 33 mg 0.0 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin polymers (>10mers) 32, 33 mg 0.0 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --

Sources of Data

1Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 6a , 2002  Beltsville MD  
2Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1995    
3Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1996    
4Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1997    
5Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1991    
6Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1992    
7Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1993    
8Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1994    
9Robert Ophaug Fluoride, Unpublished - Ophaug ,  Microdiffision   
10A. Kingman Unpublished data. NIDR/NIH, 1984 , 1984 Unpublished data. NIDR/NIH, 1984.   
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12de Pascual-Teresa, S., Santos-Buelga, C., & Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C.  Quantitative analysis of flavan-3-ols in Spanish foodstuffs and beverages. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.5331-5337
13Franke, A.A., Custer, L.J., Arakaki, C., and Murphy, S.P. Vitamin C and flavonoid levels of fruits and vegetables consumed in Hawaii. , 2004 J. Food Comp. Anal. 17   pp.1-35
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19Tsushida T., and Suzuki, M.  Content of flavonol glucosides and some properties of enzymes metabolizing the glucosides in onion. , 1996 J. Jap. Soc. Food Sci. Technol. 43   pp.642-649
20Bilyk, A., Cooper, P. L., and Sapers, G. M.  Vaietal differences in distribution of qercetin and kaempferol in onion (Allium cepa L.) Tissue. , 1984 J. Agric. Food Chem 32   pp.274-276
21Ewald, C., Fjelkner-Modig, S., Johansson, K., Sj�holm, I., and �kesson. B.  Effect of processing on major flavonoids in processed onoins, green beans, and peas. , 1999 Food Chem. 64   pp.231-235
22Hertog, M. G. L., Hollman, P. C. H., and Venema, D. P.  Optimization of a quantitative HPLC determination of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids in vegetables and fruits. , 1992 J. Agric. Food Chem. 40   pp.1591-1598
23Kevers, C., Falkowski, M., Tabart, J., Defraigne, J-O., Dommes, J., and Pincemail, J.  Evolution of antioxidant capacity during storage of selected fruits and vegetables , 2007 J. Agric. Food Chem. 55   pp.8596-8603
24Justesen, U., Knuthsen, P., and Leth, T. Quantitative analysis of flavonols, flavones, and flavonones in fruits, vegetables and beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array and mass spectrometric detection. , 1998 J. Chromatogr. A 799   pp.101-110
25Lombard, K., Peffley, E., Geoffriau, E., Thompson, L., and Herring, A. Quercetin in onion (Allium cepa L.) after heat-treatment simulating home preparation. , 2005 J. Food Comp. Anal. 18   pp.571-581
26Makris, D.P. and Rossiter, J.T.  Domestic processing of onion bulbs (Allium cepa) and asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis): Effect on flavonol content and antioxidant status , 2001 J. Agric. Food Chem. 49 7   pp.3216-3222
27Mattila, P., Astola, J., and Kumpulainen, J. Determination of flavonoids in plant material by HPLC with diode-array and electro-array detection. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.5834-5841
28Patil, B. S., Pike, L. M., and Hamilton, B. K.  Changes in quercetin concentration in onion (Allium cepa L.) owing to location, growth stage and soil type. , 1995 New Phytol. 130   pp.340-355
29Patil, B. S., Pike, L. M., and Yoo, K. S. Variation in the quercetin content in different colored onions (Allium cepa L.). , 1995 J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 120   pp.909-913
30Yamada, K., Naemura, A., Sawashita, N., Noguchi, Y., and Yamamoto, J.  An onion variety has natural antithrombotic effect as assessed by thrombosis/thrombolysis models in rodents. , 2004 Thrombosis Res. 114   pp.213-220
31de Pascual-Teresa, S., Santos-Buelga, C., and Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C. Quantitative analysis of flavan-3-ols in Spanish foodstuffs and beverages , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.5331-5337
32Gu, L., Kelm, M.A., Hammerstone, J.F., Beecher, G., Holden, J., Haytowitz, D., Gebhardt, S., and Prior, R.L. Screening foods containing proanthocyanidins and their structural characterization using LC-MS/MS and thiolytic degradation , 2003 J. Agric. Food Chem. 51   pp.7513-7521
33Hellstr�m, T�rr�nen, A.R., and Matilla, P.H. Proanthocyanidins in common food products of plant origin , 2009 J. Agric. Food Chem. 57   pp.7899-7906
34Horn-Ross, P. L., Barnes, S., Lee, M., Coward, L., Mandel, E., Koo, J., John, E. M., and Smith, M.  Assesing phytoestrogen exposure in epidemiologic studies: development of a database (United States). , 2000 Cancer Causes and Control 11   pp.289-298
35Liggins, J., Bluck, L. J. C., Runswick, C., Atkinson, C., Coward, W. A., and Bingham, S. A.  Daidzein and genistein content of vegetables. , 2000 Brit. J. Nutr. 84   pp.717-725