United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service

National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Legacy Release
Try FoodData Central Statistics Report:  09252, Pears, raw
heading Nutrient Unit Value (100g) Data Points Std. Error Min Max df LB UB # Studies Source NDB Ref Last Modified
Proximates Water 1, 2 g 83.96 32 0.110 81.63 85.08 3.0 83.62 84.28 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Proximates Energy kcal 57 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 08/01/2012
Proximates Energy kJ 239 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 08/01/2012
Proximates Protein 1, 2 g 0.36 29 0.010 0.22 0.59 7.0 0.32 0.39 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Proximates Total lipid (fat) 1, 2 g 0.14 24 0.010 0.01 0.3 7.0 0.09 0.18 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Proximates Ash 1, 2 g 0.32 24 0.010 0.1 0.6 5.0 0.26 0.36 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Proximates Carbohydrate, by difference g 15.23 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 08/01/2012
Proximates Fiber, total dietary 1, 2 g 3.1 24 0.074 2.5 3.7 8.0 2.9 3.2 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Proximates Sugars, total 1, 2 g 9.75 24 0.200 8.47 11.79 5.0 9.23 10.26 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Proximates Sucrose 1, 2 g 0.71 24 0.090 0.12 3.68 7.0 0.49 0.92 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Proximates Glucose (dextrose) 1, 2 g 2.60 24 0.150 1.58 4.92 3.0 2.11 3.08 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Proximates Fructose 1, 2 g 6.42 24 0.060 5.13 7.13 9.0 6.28 6.55 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Proximates Lactose 1, 2 g 0.00 23 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Proximates Maltose 1, 2 g 0.00 23 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Proximates Galactose 1, 2 g 0.00 24 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Minerals Calcium, Ca 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 mg 9 51 0.000 6 13 4.0 8.0 10.0 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/2003
Minerals Iron, Fe 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 mg 0.18 55 0.020 0.11 0.43 2.0 0.06 0.29 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Minerals Magnesium, Mg 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 mg 7 51 0.000 6 7 8.0 6.0 6.0 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/2003
Minerals Phosphorus, P 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 mg 12 50 0.000 8 14 10.0 11.0 12.0 13 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Minerals Potassium, K 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 mg 116 50 3.000 86 144 2.0 98.0 134.0 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Minerals Sodium, Na 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 mg 1 51 0.000 0 2 11.0 -- 1.0 13 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Minerals Zinc, Zn 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 mg 0.10 51 0.004 0.07 0.15 3.0 0.08 0.11 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/2003
Minerals Copper, Cu 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 mg 0.082 57 0.006 0.05 0.13 2.0 0.053 0.112 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/2003
Minerals Manganese, Mn 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 mg 0.048 60 0.003 0.04 0.07 2.0 0.039 0.058 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Minerals Selenium, Se 2 µg 0.1 8 0.007 0 0.1 3.0 0.036 0.084 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Minerals Fluoride, F 15, 16, 17 µg 2.2 20 0.100 1.3 3 6.0 1.6 2.6 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/2006
Vitamins Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid 1, 2 mg 4.3 16 0.200 1.5 5.7 2.0 3.3 5.2 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Vitamins Thiamin 1, 2 mg 0.012 16 0.001 0.01 0.02 3.0 0.008 0.016 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Vitamins Riboflavin 1, 2 mg 0.026 16 0.002 0.01 0.05 2.0 0.018 0.034 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Vitamins Niacin 1, 2 mg 0.161 16 0.005 0.1 0.18 3.0 0.144 0.178 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Vitamins Pantothenic acid 1, 2 mg 0.049 14 0.004 0.03 0.08 3.0 0.038 0.059 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Vitamins Vitamin B-6 1, 2 mg 0.029 16 0.001 0.02 0.04 2.0 0.024 0.035 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Vitamins Folate, total 1, 2 µg 7 16 0.000 4 14 2.0 5.0 8.0 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Vitamins Folic acid µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 01/01/2001
Vitamins Folate, food µg 7 16 0.000 4 14 2.0 5.0 8.0 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Vitamins Folate, DFE µg 7 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 11/01/2006
Vitamins Choline, total 2 mg 5.1 3 0.100 4.9 5.3 2.0 4.5 5.6 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Vitamins Betaine 2 mg 0.2 3 0.015 0.1 0.2 2.0 0.089 0.2 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Vitamins Vitamin B-12 µg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/01/1982
Vitamins Vitamin B-12, added µg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/01/2004
Vitamins Vitamin A, RAE 1, 2, 18 µg 1 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/2003
Vitamins Retinol µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/01/2002
Vitamins Carotene, beta 1, 2, 18 µg 14 16 4.000 6 27 3.0 -- 26.0 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Vitamins Carotene, alpha 1, 2, 18 µg 1 16 0.000 0 6 2.0 -2.0 4.0 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Vitamins Cryptoxanthin, beta 1, 2 µg 2 14 0.000 0 8 1.0 -3.0 6.0 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/2003
Vitamins Vitamin A, IU 1, 2, 18 IU 25 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Vitamins Lycopene 1, 2 µg 0 14 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/2003
Vitamins Lutein + zeaxanthin 1, 2 µg 44 14 2.000 11 67 2.0 33.0 53.0 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Vitamins Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 2 mg 0.12 4 0.003 0.12 0.13 3.0 0.11 0.13 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Vitamins Vitamin E, added mg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/01/2004
Vitamins Tocopherol, beta 2 mg 0.00 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Vitamins Tocopherol, gamma 2 mg 0.03 4 0.003 0.03 0.04 3.0 0.02 0.04 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Vitamins Tocopherol, delta 2 mg 0.00 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Vitamins Tocotrienol, alpha 2 mg 0.02 4 0.007 0 0.03 3.0 -0.003 0.04 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Vitamins Tocotrienol, beta 2 mg 0.00 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Vitamins Tocotrienol, gamma 2 mg 0.00 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Vitamins Tocotrienol, delta 2 mg 0.00 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Vitamins Vitamin D (D2 + D3) µg 0.0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 11/01/2008
Vitamins Vitamin D IU 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 02/01/2009
Vitamins Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 1, 2 µg 4.4 16 0.100 2.2 7.8 2.0 3.7 5.1 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Lipids Fatty acids, total saturated g 0.022 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Lipids 4:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Lipids 6:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Lipids 8:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Lipids 10:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Lipids 12:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Lipids 14:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Lipids 16:0 g 0.017 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Lipids 18:0 g 0.003 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Lipids Fatty acids, total monounsaturated g 0.084 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Lipids 16:1 undifferentiated g 0.002 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Lipids 18:1 undifferentiated g 0.081 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Lipids 20:1 g 0.001 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Lipids 22:1 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Lipids Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated g 0.094 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Lipids 18:2 undifferentiated g 0.093 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Lipids 18:3 undifferentiated g 0.001 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2012
Lipids 18:4 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Lipids 20:4 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Lipids 20:5 n-3 (EPA) g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Lipids 22:5 n-3 (DPA) g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Lipids 22:6 n-3 (DHA) g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2006
Lipids Fatty acids, total trans g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 03/01/2016
Lipids Cholesterol mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/01/1982
Lipids Phytosterols mg 8 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Tryptophan 2 g 0.002 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Threonine 2 g 0.011 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Isoleucine 2 g 0.011 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Leucine 2 g 0.019 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Lysine 2 g 0.017 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Methionine 2 g 0.002 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Cystine 2 g 0.002 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Phenylalanine 2 g 0.011 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Tyrosine 2 g 0.002 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Valine 2 g 0.017 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Arginine 2 g 0.010 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Histidine 2 g 0.002 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Alanine 2 g 0.014 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Aspartic acid 2 g 0.105 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Glutamic acid 2 g 0.030 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Glycine 2 g 0.013 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Proline 2 g 0.021 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Amino Acids Serine 2 g 0.015 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 12/01/2002
Other Alcohol, ethyl g 0.0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 12/01/2002
Other Caffeine mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 12/01/2002
Other Theobromine mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 12/01/2002
Anthocyanidins Cyanidin 19 mg 2.1 8 0.41 0 3.5 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Petunidin 19 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Delphinidin 19 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Malvidin 19 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Pelargonidin 19 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Peonidin 19 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Catechin 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 mg 0.3 47 0.04 0 2.32 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 19, 21, 22 mg 0.6 28 0.25 0 5.07 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 mg 3.8 50 0.32 0.1 17.74 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 3-gallate 19, 21, 22 mg 0.0 28 0.02 0 0.5 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate 19, 21, 22 mg 0.2 28 0.12 0 2.52 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Gallocatechin 19, 21, 22 mg 0.0 28 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavanones Hesperetin 19 mg 0.0 6 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavanones Naringenin 19 mg 0.0 6 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Apigenin 19, 25, 26 mg 0.0 12 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Luteolin 19, 25, 26 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Isorhamnetin 24 mg 0.3 3 0.16 0.06 0.6 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Kaempferol 25, 26, 27 mg 0.0 5 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Myricetin 19, 25, 26, 27 mg 0.0 13 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Quercetin 19, 24, 25, 26, 27 mg 0.8 16 0.26 0 3.4 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Daidzein 31, 32 mg 0.00 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Genistein 31, 32 mg 0.00 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Total isoflavones 31, 32 mg 0.00 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin dimers 28, 29, 30 mg 2.0 18 0.94 0.7 4.33 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin trimers 28, 29, 30 mg 1.5 18 0.75 0.43 3.36 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 4-6mers 29, 30 mg 6.0 12 1.49 3.7 8.96 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 7-10mers 29, 30 mg 4.7 12 1.77 0.58 8.02 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin polymers (>10mers) 29, 30 mg 18.5 12 14.97 0 56.33 -- -- -- -- -- --

Sources of Data

1Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 5i , 2001  Beltsville MD  
2Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 5a , 2001  Beltsville MD  
3N.J. Miller-Ihli Atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry for the determination of the trace element content of selected fruits consumed in the United States , 1996 Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 9 4   pp.301-311
4Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1995    
5Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1996    
6Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1997    
7Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1998    
8Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1999    
9Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1991    
10Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1992    
11Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1989    
12Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1990    
13Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1993    
14Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1994    
15J.D.B. Featherstone, Carol Shields A Study of Fluoride Intake in New York State Residents , 1988 New York State Fluoride Analysis Contract - report date 12/1/1988   
16Stephen Adair, Dennis Leverett, Carol Shields Fluoride Content of School Lunches from Optimally Fluoridated and a Fluoride-Deficient Community , 1991 Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 4   pp.216-226
17Robert Ophaug Fluoride, Unpublished - Ophaug ,  Microdiffision   
18Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA Continued monitoring of the nutrient content of selected key foods, University of Georgia , 1993  Beltsville MD  
19Harnly, J. M., Doherty, R., Beecher, G. R., Holden, J. M., Haytowitz, D. B., and Bhagwat, S., and Gebhardt S.  Flavonoid content of U.S. fruits, vegetables, and nuts , 2006 J. Agric. Food Chem. 54   pp.9966-9977
20Amiot, M. J., Tacchini, M., Aubert, S. Y., and Oleszek, W.  Influence of cultivar, maturity stage and storage conditions on phenolic composition and browning of pear fruits. , 1995 J. Agric. Food Chem. 43   pp.1132-1137
21Arts, I. C. W., van de Putte, B., and Hollman, P. C. H.  Catechin content of foods commonly consumed in the Netherlands. 1. Fruits, vegetables, staple foods and processed foods. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.1746-1751
22de Pascual-Teresa, S., Santos-Buelga, C., & Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C.  Quantitative analysis of flavan-3-ols in Spanish foodstuffs and beverages. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.5331-5337
23Tsanova-Savova, S., Ribarova, F., and Gerova, M.  (+)-Catechin and (-)-Epicatechin in Bulgarian fruits. , 2005 J. Food Comp. Anal. 18   pp.691-698
24Schieber, A., Keller, P., Carle, R.  Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids of apple and pear by high-performance liquid chromatography , 2001 J. Chromatogr. A 910   pp.265-273
25Hertog, M. G. L., Hollman, P. C. H., and Katan, M. B.  Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of 28 vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in The Netherlands. , 1992 J. Agric. Food Chem. 40   pp.2379-2383
26Lugasi, A. and Hovari, J.  Flavonoid aglycons in foods of plant origin II. Fresh and dried fruits. , 2002 Acta Alimentaria 31 1   pp.63-71
27Kevers, C., Falkowski, M., Tabart, J., Defraigne, J-O., Dommes, J., and Pincemail, J.  Evolution of antioxidant capacity during storage of selected fruits and vegetables , 2007 J. Agric. Food Chem. 55   pp.8596-8603
28de Pascual-Teresa, S., Santos-Buelga, C., and Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C. Quantitative analysis of flavan-3-ols in Spanish foodstuffs and beverages , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.5331-5337
29Gu, L., Kelm, M.A., Hammerstone, J.F., Beecher, G., Holden, J., Haytowitz, D., Gebhardt, S., and Prior, R.L. Concentrations of proanthocyanidins in common foods and estimations of normal consumption , 2004 J. Nutr. 134   pp.613-617
30Hellstr�m, T�rr�nen, A.R., and Matilla, P.H. Proanthocyanidins in common food products of plant origin , 2009 J. Agric. Food Chem. 57   pp.7899-7906
31Horn-Ross, P. L., Barnes, S., Lee, M., Coward, L., Mandel, E., Koo, J., John, E. M., and Smith, M.  Assesing phytoestrogen exposure in epidemiologic studies: development of a database (United States). , 2000 Cancer Causes and Control 11   pp.289-298
32Liggins, J., Bluck, L. J. C., Runswick, S., Atkinson, C., Coward, W. A., Bingham, S. A.  Daidzein and genistein content of fruits and nuts. , 2000 J. Nutr. Biochem. 11   pp.326-331