United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service

National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Legacy Release
Try FoodData Central Statistics Report:  11252, Lettuce, iceberg (includes crisphead types), raw
heading Nutrient Unit Value (100g) Data Points Std. Error Min Max df LB UB # Studies Source NDB Ref Last Modified
Proximates Water 1, 2 g 95.64 44 0.110 94 97.7 20.0 95.4 95.86 12 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 11/01/2003
Proximates Energy kcal 14 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 06/01/2007
Proximates Energy kJ 58 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 06/01/2007
Proximates Protein 1, 2 g 0.90 23 0.030 0.63 1.48 4.0 0.8 0.99 3 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 11/01/2003
Proximates Total lipid (fat) 1, 2 g 0.14 30 0.010 0.02 0.3 18.0 0.11 0.16 5 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 11/01/2003
Proximates Ash 1, 2 g 0.36 23 0.010 0.2 0.5 18.0 0.31 0.39 3 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Proximates Carbohydrate, by difference g 2.97 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 06/01/2007
Proximates Fiber, total dietary 2 g 1.2 14 0.052 0.7 1.6 4.0 1.0 1.2 7 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Proximates Sugars, total 2 g 1.97 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 06/01/2007
Proximates Sucrose 2 g 0.05 8 0.010 0 0.2 2.0 -0.001 0.1 3 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Proximates Glucose (dextrose) 2 g 0.91 8 0.060 0.67 1.2 3.0 0.69 1.12 3 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Proximates Fructose 2 g 1.00 8 0.060 0.78 1.4 3.0 0.8 1.2 3 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Proximates Lactose 2 g 0.00 5 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Proximates Maltose 2 g 0.00 5 0.000 0 0.02 -- -- -- 2 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Proximates Galactose 2 g 0.00 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2003
Minerals Calcium, Ca 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 mg 18 98 0.000 8 33 40.0 16.0 18.0 14 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Minerals Iron, Fe 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 mg 0.41 97 0.040 0.11 4.71 4.0 0.28 0.52 14 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Minerals Magnesium, Mg 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 mg 7 99 0.000 3 14 49.0 7.0 7.0 14 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Minerals Phosphorus, P 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 mg 20 98 0.000 5 31 29.0 18.0 20.0 14 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Minerals Potassium, K 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 mg 141 98 3.000 14 250 45.0 134.0 146.0 14 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Minerals Sodium, Na 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 mg 10 91 0.000 1 32 37.0 9.0 11.0 14 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Minerals Zinc, Zn 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 mg 0.15 93 0.004 0.01 0.26 53.0 0.13 0.15 14 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Minerals Copper, Cu 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 mg 0.025 86 0.002 0 0.06 26.0 0.021 0.028 14 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Minerals Manganese, Mn 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 mg 0.125 89 0.004 0.04 0.26 46.0 0.116 0.133 14 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Minerals Selenium, Se 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 µg 0.1 63 0.025 0 1.4 3.0 0.03 0.1 12 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid 1, 2 mg 2.8 23 0.100 0.7 4.5 16.0 2.4 3.1 3 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Thiamin 1, 2 mg 0.041 23 0.003 0.01 0.06 15.0 0.034 0.048 3 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Riboflavin 1, 2 mg 0.025 23 0.001 0.01 0.04 17.0 0.022 0.028 3 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Niacin 1, 2 mg 0.123 13 0.015 0.04 0.22 3.0 0.079 0.167 3 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Pantothenic acid 1, 2 mg 0.091 13 0.015 0.04 0.25 5.0 0.053 0.129 3 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Vitamin B-6 1, 2 mg 0.042 23 0.002 0.03 0.07 8.0 0.037 0.047 3 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Folate, total 1, 2 µg 29 23 3.000 2 63 17.0 21.0 37.0 3 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Folic acid µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 01/01/2001
Vitamins Folate, food µg 29 23 3.000 2 63 17.0 21.0 37.0 3 Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 06/01/2007
Vitamins Folate, DFE µg 29 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 06/01/2007
Vitamins Choline, total 1 mg 6.7 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Betaine 1 mg 0.1 2 -- 0.1 0.1 1.0 -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Vitamin B-12 µg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/01/1984
Vitamins Vitamin B-12, added µg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/01/2004
Vitamins Vitamin A, RAE µg 25 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Vitamins Retinol µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/01/2002
Vitamins Carotene, beta 1, 2, 10, 11, 12 µg 299 53 4.000 57 333 3.0 286.0 311.0 5 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Carotene, alpha 1, 2, 10, 11 µg 4 51 0.000 0 4 -- -- -- 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Cryptoxanthin, beta 1, 2, 10, 11 µg 0 51 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Vitamin A, IU IU 502 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Vitamins Lycopene 1, 2, 11 µg 0 9 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Lutein + zeaxanthin 1, 2, 11 µg 277 9 25.000 87 355 3.0 198.0 355.0 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 1, 2 mg 0.18 13 0.010 0.03 0.37 6.0 0.14 0.22 4 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Vitamin E, added mg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/01/2004
Vitamins Tocopherol, beta 1, 2 mg 0.00 13 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 4 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Tocopherol, gamma 1, 2 mg 0.09 13 0.010 0.02 0.27 6.0 0.05 0.12 4 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Tocopherol, delta 1, 2 mg 0.00 13 0.002 0 0.02 1.0 -0.01 0.02 4 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Tocotrienol, alpha 1, 2 mg 0.01 7 0.000 0 0.03 -- -- -- 3 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Tocotrienol, beta 1, 2 mg 0.00 7 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 3 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Tocotrienol, gamma 1, 2 mg 0.00 7 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 3 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Tocotrienol, delta 1, 2 mg 0.00 7 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 3 Aggregated data involving comb. of codes other then 1,12 or6 -- 11/01/2003
Vitamins Vitamin D (D2 + D3) µg 0.0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 11/01/2008
Vitamins Vitamin D IU 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 02/01/2009
Vitamins Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 1, 2 µg 24.1 8 2.300 15.6 36.2 5.0 18.2 29.9 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/2002
Lipids Fatty acids, total saturated g 0.018 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 4:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 6:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 8:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 10:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 12:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 14:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 16:0 g 0.016 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 18:0 g 0.002 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids Fatty acids, total monounsaturated g 0.006 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 16:1 undifferentiated g 0.001 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 18:1 undifferentiated g 0.004 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 20:1 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 22:1 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated g 0.074 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 18:2 undifferentiated g 0.021 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 18:3 undifferentiated g 0.052 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 18:4 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 20:4 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 20:5 n-3 (EPA) g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 22:5 n-3 (DPA) g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids 22:6 n-3 (DHA) g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/01/2007
Lipids Fatty acids, total trans g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/01/2015
Lipids Cholesterol mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/01/1984
Lipids Phytosterols mg 10 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1984
Amino Acids Tryptophan 1, 2 g 0.009 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Threonine 1, 2 g 0.025 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Isoleucine 1, 2 g 0.018 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Leucine 1, 2 g 0.025 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Lysine 1, 2 g 0.024 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Methionine 1, 2 g 0.005 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Cystine 1, 2 g 0.005 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Phenylalanine 1, 2 g 0.023 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Tyrosine 1, 2 g 0.007 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Valine 1, 2 g 0.024 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Arginine 1, 2 g 0.015 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Histidine 1, 2 g 0.009 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Alanine 1, 2 g 0.025 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Aspartic acid 1, 2 g 0.125 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Glutamic acid 1, 2 g 0.194 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Glycine 1, 2 g 0.015 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Proline 1, 2 g 0.010 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Amino Acids Serine 1, 2 g 0.025 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Aggregated data involving combinations of source codes 1 &12 -- 03/01/2006
Other Alcohol, ethyl g 0.0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 04/01/1985
Other Caffeine mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/01/2002
Other Theobromine mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/01/2002
Anthocyanidins Cyanidin 13, 14 mg 0.0 11 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Petunidin 14 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Delphinidin 14 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Malvidin 14 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Pelargonidin 14 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Peonidin 14 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Catechin 14, 15 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 14, 15 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 14, 15 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 3-gallate 14, 15 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate 14, 15 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Gallocatechin 14, 15 mg 0.0 8 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavanones Hesperetin 14 mg 0.0 4 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavanones Naringenin 14 mg 0.0 4 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Apigenin 14, 16, 17, 18 mg 0.1 21 0.13 0 2.65 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Luteolin 13, 14, 16, 17, 18 mg 0.0 20 0.02 0 0.39 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Kaempferol 16, 17, 18, 19 mg 0.1 19 0.03 0 0.84 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Myricetin 14, 16, 17, 18 mg 0.1 21 0.05 0 1.02 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Quercetin 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 mg 1.4 37 0.18 0 9.4 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Daidzein 24, 25 mg 0.00 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Genistein 24, 25 mg 0.00 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Total isoflavones 24, 25 mg 0.00 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin dimers 22, 23 mg 0.0 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin trimers 22, 23 mg 0.0 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 4-6mers 22, 23 mg 0.0 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 7-10mers 22, 23 mg 0.0 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin polymers (>10mers) 22, 23 mg 0.0 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --

Sources of Data

1Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 5g , 2001  Beltsville MD  
2Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 4f , 2000  Beltsville MD  
3Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1995    
4Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1996    
5Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1997    
6Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1991    
7Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1992    
8Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1993    
9Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1994    
10J L Bureau, R J Bushway HPLC determination of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables in the United States , 1986 J Food Sci 52   pp.128-130
11National Institutes of Health (NIH) Carotenoid analyses of U.S. foods, Food Composition Laboratory , 1997    
12Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA Continued monitoring of the nutrient content of selected key foods, University of Georgia , 1993  Beltsville MD  
13DuPont, M.S., Mondin, Z., Williamson, G., & Price, K.R.  Effect of variety, processing, and storage on the flavonoid glycoside content and composition of lettuce and endive. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48 9   pp.3957-3964
14Harnly, J. M., Doherty, R., Beecher, G. R., Holden, J. M., Haytowitz, D. B., and Bhagwat, S., and Gebhardt S.  Flavonoid content of U.S. fruits, vegetables, and nuts , 2006 J. Agric. Food Chem. 54   pp.9966-9977
15Arts, I. C. W., van de Putte, B., and Hollman, P. C. H.  Catechin content of foods commonly consumed in the Netherlands. 1. Fruits, vegetables, staple foods and processed foods. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.1746-1751
16Franke, A.A., Custer, L.J., Arakaki, C., and Murphy, S.P. Vitamin C and flavonoid levels of fruits and vegetables consumed in Hawaii. , 2004 J. Food Comp. Anal. 17   pp.1-35
17Hertog, M. G. L., Hollman, P. C. H., and Katan, M. B.  Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of 28 vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in The Netherlands. , 1992 J. Agric. Food Chem. 40   pp.2379-2383
18Lugasi, A., and Hovari, J. Flavonoid aglycons in foods of plant origin I. Vegetables , 2000 Acta Alimentaria 29   pp.345-352
19Bilyk, A., and Sapers, G. M.  Distribution of quercetin and kaempferol in lettuce, kale, chive, garlic chive, leek, horseradish, red radish, and red cabbage tissues. , 1985 J. Agric. Food Chem. 33   pp.226-228
20Crozier, A., Lean, M. E. J., McDonald, M. S., and Black, C.  Quantitative analysis of the flavonoid content of commercial tomatoes, onions, lettuce, and celery. , 1997 J. Agric. Food Chem. 45   pp.590-595
21Hertog, M. G. L., Hollman, P. C. H., and Venema, D. P.  Optimization of a quantitative HPLC determination of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids in vegetables and fruits. , 1992 J. Agric. Food Chem. 40   pp.1591-1598
22Gu, L., Kelm, M.A., Hammerstone, J.F., Beecher, G., Holden, J., Haytowitz, D., Gebhardt, S., and Prior, R.L. Screening foods containing proanthocyanidins and their structural characterization using LC-MS/MS and thiolytic degradation , 2003 J. Agric. Food Chem. 51   pp.7513-7521
23Hellstr�m, T�rr�nen, A.R., and Matilla, P.H. Proanthocyanidins in common food products of plant origin , 2009 J. Agric. Food Chem. 57   pp.7899-7906
24Horn-Ross, P. L., Barnes, S., Lee, M., Coward, L., Mandel, E., Koo, J., John, E. M., and Smith, M.  Assesing phytoestrogen exposure in epidemiologic studies: development of a database (United States). , 2000 Cancer Causes and Control 11   pp.289-298
25Liggins, J., Bluck, L. J. C., Runswick, C., Atkinson, C., Coward, W. A., and Bingham, S. A.  Daidzein and genistein content of vegetables. , 2000 Brit. J. Nutr. 84   pp.717-725