United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service

National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Legacy Release
Try FoodData Central Statistics Report:  09326, Watermelon, raw
heading Nutrient Unit Value (100g) Data Points Std. Error Min Max df LB UB # Studies Source NDB Ref Last Modified
Proximates Water 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 g 91.45 14 0.310 90.1 92.42 5.0 90.63 92.26 6 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Proximates Energy kcal 30 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Proximates Energy kJ 127 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Proximates Protein 1, 2, 3 g 0.61 11 0.040 0.4 0.84 2.0 0.43 0.78 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Proximates Total lipid (fat) 1, 2, 3 g 0.15 10 0.030 0.05 0.27 2.0 -0.01 0.3 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/01/2003
Proximates Ash 1, 2, 3 g 0.25 11 0.030 0.1 0.37 2.0 0.08 0.41 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Proximates Carbohydrate, by difference g 7.55 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Proximates Fiber, total dietary 1, 3, 4, 5 g 0.4 10 0.051 0.4 0.7 3.0 0.2 0.5 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Proximates Sugars, total 2, 3, 4 g 6.20 6 0.140 5.74 6.59 2.0 5.58 6.82 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Proximates Sucrose 2, 3, 4 g 1.21 6 0.850 0.11 2.87 2.0 -2.53 4.85 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/01/2006
Proximates Glucose (dextrose) 2, 3, 4 g 1.58 8 0.430 0.67 2.13 2.0 -0.34 3.38 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/01/2006
Proximates Fructose 2, 3, 4 g 3.36 8 0.320 2.72 4 2.0 1.85 4.62 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/01/2006
Proximates Lactose 2, 3, 4 g 0.00 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/01/2006
Proximates Maltose 2, 3, 4 g 0.06 8 0.040 0 0.14 2.0 -0.12 0.24 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/01/2006
Proximates Galactose 2, 3 g 0.00 7 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/01/2006
Proximates Starch 3 g 0.00 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Minerals Calcium, Ca 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 mg 7 42 0.000 4 14 12.0 6.0 7.0 13 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Minerals Iron, Fe 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 mg 0.24 45 0.010 0.08 0.55 13.0 0.2 0.26 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Minerals Magnesium, Mg 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 mg 10 45 0.000 5 12 13.0 9.0 10.0 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Minerals Phosphorus, P 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 mg 11 42 0.000 5 19 12.0 10.0 12.0 13 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Minerals Potassium, K 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 mg 112 44 3.000 58 191 13.0 105.0 119.0 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/2003
Minerals Sodium, Na 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 mg 1 40 0.000 0 5 12.0 1.0 1.0 13 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/2003
Minerals Zinc, Zn 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 mg 0.10 45 0.020 0.04 0.63 13.0 0.05 0.15 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Minerals Copper, Cu 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 mg 0.042 42 0.008 0.01 0.17 12.0 0.024 0.06 13 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Minerals Manganese, Mn 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 mg 0.038 45 0.002 0 0.08 13.0 0.033 0.042 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Minerals Selenium, Se 2 µg 0.4 2 -- 0 0.7 1.0 -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Minerals Fluoride, F 18, 19 µg 1.5 11 0.300 1 2.1 2.0 0.054 2.8 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/01/2006
Vitamins Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid 1, 3 mg 8.1 6 2.400 5.3 14.7 1.0 -22.7 38.9 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Thiamin 1, 2, 3 mg 0.033 11 0.003 0.02 0.05 2.0 0.021 0.045 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Riboflavin 1, 2, 3 mg 0.021 11 0.007 0.01 0.04 2.0 -0.01 0.052 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Niacin 1, 2, 3 mg 0.178 11 0.008 0.11 0.21 2.0 0.142 0.215 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Pantothenic acid 1, 2, 3 mg 0.221 11 0.014 0.15 0.33 2.0 0.161 0.281 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Vitamin B-6 1, 2, 3 mg 0.045 11 0.009 0.03 0.07 2.0 0.004 0.086 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Folate, total 2 µg 3 3 0.000 2 3 2.0 1.0 3.0 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Folic acid µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 01/01/2001
Vitamins Folate, food µg 3 3 0.000 2 3 2.0 1.0 3.0 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/01/2006
Vitamins Folate, DFE µg 3 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Vitamins Choline, total 3 mg 4.1 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/01/2006
Vitamins Betaine 3 mg 0.3 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/01/2006
Vitamins Vitamin B-12 µg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/01/1982
Vitamins Vitamin B-12, added µg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/01/2004
Vitamins Vitamin A, RAE 2, 3 µg 28 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Retinol µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/01/2002
Vitamins Carotene, beta 1, 2, 3, 20, 21 µg 303 14 8.000 184 476 4.0 278.0 326.0 5 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Carotene, alpha 2, 3, 21 µg 0 9 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Cryptoxanthin, beta 2, 3, 20, 21 µg 78 10 77.000 0 310 3.0 -169.0 324.0 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Vitamin A, IU 1, 2, 3 IU 569 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Lycopene 2, 3, 21, 22 µg 4532 150 386.000 3,040 5,590 3.0 3300.0 5763.0 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Lutein + zeaxanthin 2, 3, 21 µg 8 9 4.000 0 17 2.0 -12.0 29.0 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 2, 3, 6 mg 0.05 8 0.010 0.02 0.07 2.0 -0.005 0.1 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Vitamin E, added mg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/01/2004
Vitamins Tocopherol, beta 2, 3, 6 mg 0.00 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Tocopherol, gamma 2, 3, 6 mg 0.00 8 0.003 0 0.02 2.0 -0.01 0.01 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Tocopherol, delta 2, 3, 6 mg 0.00 8 0.005 0 0.04 2.0 -0.01 0.02 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Tocotrienol, alpha 2, 3, 6 mg 0.01 8 0.008 0 0.03 2.0 -0.02 0.04 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Tocotrienol, beta 2, 3, 6 mg 0.00 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Tocotrienol, gamma 2, 3, 6 mg 0.00 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Tocotrienol, delta 2, 3, 6 mg 0.00 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Vitamins Vitamin D (D2 + D3) µg 0.0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 11/01/2008
Vitamins Vitamin D IU 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 02/01/2009
Vitamins Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 2, 3, 23 µg 0.1 8 0.060 0 0.3 2.0 -0.1 0.3 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2003
Lipids Fatty acids, total saturated g 0.016 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 4:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 6:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 8:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 10:0 g 0.001 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 12:0 g 0.001 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 14:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 16:0 g 0.008 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 18:0 g 0.006 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids Fatty acids, total monounsaturated g 0.037 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 16:1 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 18:1 undifferentiated g 0.037 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 20:1 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 22:1 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated g 0.050 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 18:2 undifferentiated g 0.050 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 18:3 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 18:4 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 20:4 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 20:5 n-3 (EPA) g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 22:5 n-3 (DPA) g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids 22:6 n-3 (DHA) g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 04/01/2006
Lipids Fatty acids, total trans g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/01/2015
Lipids Cholesterol mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/01/1982
Lipids Phytosterols mg 2 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Tryptophan g 0.007 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Threonine g 0.027 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Isoleucine g 0.019 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Leucine g 0.018 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Lysine g 0.062 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Methionine g 0.006 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Cystine g 0.002 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Phenylalanine g 0.015 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Tyrosine g 0.012 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Valine g 0.016 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Arginine g 0.059 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Histidine g 0.006 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Alanine g 0.017 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Aspartic acid g 0.039 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Glutamic acid g 0.063 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Glycine g 0.010 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Proline g 0.024 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Amino Acids Serine g 0.016 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/01/1982
Other Alcohol, ethyl g 0.0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 04/01/1985
Other Caffeine mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 11/01/2000
Other Theobromine mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 11/01/2000
Anthocyanidins Cyanidin 24 mg 0.0 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Petunidin 24 mg 0.0 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Delphinidin 24 mg 0.0 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Malvidin 24 mg 0.0 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Pelargonidin 24 mg 0.0 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Peonidin 24 mg 0.0 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Catechin 24 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 24 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 24 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 3-gallate 24 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate 24 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Gallocatechin 24 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavanones Hesperetin 24 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavanones Naringenin 24 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Apigenin 24, 25, 26 mg 0.0 5 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Luteolin 24, 25, 26, 27 mg 0.5 4 0.46 0 1.84 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Kaempferol 25, 26, 27, 28 mg 0.5 4 0.45 0 1.81 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Myricetin 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Quercetin 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Daidzein 31, 32, 33 mg 0.00 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Genistein 31, 32, 33 mg 0.00 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Glycitein 33 mg 0.00 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Total isoflavones 31, 32, 33 mg 0.00 3 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Formononetin mg 0.00 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Coumestrol mg 0.00 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin dimers 29, 30 mg 0.0 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin trimers 29, 30 mg 0.0 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 4-6mers 29, 30 mg 0.0 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 7-10mers 29, 30 mg 0.0 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin polymers (>10mers) 29, 30 mg 0.0 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --

Sources of Data

1Produce Marketing Association (PMA) Nutrient Content of Watermelon , 1989    
2Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 5k , 2001  Beltsville MD  
3Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 4e , 2001  Beltsville MD  
4Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA Dietary Fiber and Sugars in Commonly Consumed Foods , 1994  Beltsville MD  
5J Marlett Content and composition of dietary fiber in 117 frequently consumed foods , 1992 Journal of the American Dietetic Association 92 2  
6Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA Determination of the Tocopherol Content of Selected Foods , 1992  Beltsville MD  
7Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1995    
8Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1996    
9Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1997    
10Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1998    
11Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1999    
12Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1991    
13Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1992    
14Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1989    
15Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1990    
16Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1993    
17Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1994    
18Robert Ophaug Fluoride, Unpublished - Ophaug ,  Microdiffision   
19RD Jackson, EJ Brizendine, SA Kelly, R Hinesley, GK Stookey, AJ Dunipace The fluoride content of foods and beverages from negligibly and optimally fluoridated communities. , 2002 Community Dental Oral Epidemiology 30 5   pp.382-391
20T Philip, T S Chen Development of a method for the quantitative estimation of provitamin A carotenoids in some fruits. , 1988 J. Food Science 53   pp.1703-1707
21National Institutes of Health (NIH) Carotenoid analyses of U.S. foods, Food Composition Laboratory , 1997    
22P. Perkins-Veazie, J.K. Collins, S.D. Pair, W. Roberts Lycopene content differs among red-fleshed watermelon cultivars , 2001 Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 81   pp.983-987
23S.L. Booth, J.A. Sadowski, J.A. T. Pennington Phylloquinone (Vitamin K) Content of Foods in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study , 1995 Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43 6   pp.1574-1579
24Harnly, J. M., Doherty, R., Beecher, G. R., Holden, J. M., Haytowitz, D. B., and Bhagwat, S., and Gebhardt S.  Flavonoid content of U.S. fruits, vegetables, and nuts , 2006 J. Agric. Food Chem. 54   pp.9966-9977
25Lugasi, A. and Hovari, J.  Flavonoid aglycons in foods of plant origin II. Fresh and dried fruits. , 2002 Acta Alimentaria 31 1   pp.63-71
26Sampson, L., Rimm, E., Hollman, P.C.H., de Vries, J.H.M., and Katan, M.B.  Flavonol and flavone intakes in US health professionals , 2002 J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 102 10   pp.1414-1420
27Arai, Yusuke, Watanabe, S., Kimira, M., Shimoi, K., Mochizuki, R., and Kinae, N. Dietary intakes of flavonols and isoflavones by Japanese women and inverse correlation between quercetin intake and plasma LDL cholesterol concentration , 2000 J. Nutr. 130   pp.2243-2250
28Lako, J., Trenerry, V. C., Wahlqvist, M., Wattanapenpaiboon, N., Sotheeswaran, S., Premier, R.  Phytochemical flavonols, carotenoids and the antioxidant properties of a wide selection of Fijian fruit, vegetables and other readily available foods. , 2007 Food Chemistry 101   pp.1727-1741
29Gu, L., Kelm, M.A., Hammerstone, J.F., Beecher, G., Holden, J., Haytowitz, D., Gebhardt, S., and Prior, R.L. Screening foods containing proanthocyanidins and their structural characterization using LC-MS/MS and thiolytic degradation , 2003 J. Agric. Food Chem. 51   pp.7513-7521
30Hellstr�m, T�rr�nen, A.R., and Matilla, P.H. Proanthocyanidins in common food products of plant origin , 2009 J. Agric. Food Chem. 57   pp.7899-7906
31Horn-Ross, P. L., Barnes, S., Lee, M., Coward, L., Mandel, E., Koo, J., John, E. M., and Smith, M.  Assesing phytoestrogen exposure in epidemiologic studies: development of a database (United States). , 2000 Cancer Causes and Control 11   pp.289-298
32Liggins, J., Bluck, L. J. C., Runswick, S., Atkinson, C., Coward, W. A., Bingham, S. A.  Daidzein and genistein content of fruits and nuts. , 2000 J. Nutr. Biochem. 11   pp.326-331
33Thompson, L. U., Boucher, B. A., Liu, Z., Cotterchio, M., and Kreiger, N.  Phytoestrogen content of foods consumed in Canada, including isoflavones, lignans, and coumestan. , 2006 Nutr. Cancer 54   pp.184-201