United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service

National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28
Statistics Report:  09298, Raisins, seedless
heading Nutrient Unit Value (100g) Data Points Std. Error Min Max df LB UB # Studies Source NDB Ref Last Modified
Proximates Water 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 g 15.43 11 2.446 9.9 22.54 4.0 8.641 22.225 5 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Proximates Energy kcal 299 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 08/2010
Proximates Energy kJ 1252 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 08/2010
Proximates Protein 1, 2, 3 g 3.07 9 0.079 2.91 3.2 2.0 2.736 3.414 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Proximates Total lipid (fat) 1, 2, 3, 4 g 0.46 10 0.066 0.25 0.64 3.0 0.248 0.671 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Proximates Ash 2, 3 g 1.85 8 0.177 1.61 2.12 1.0 -0.393 4.094 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Proximates Carbohydrate, by difference g 79.18 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 08/2010
Proximates Fiber, total dietary 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8 g 3.7 13 0.173 3.1 4.2 5.0 3.249 4.137 6 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Proximates Sugars, total 2, 3, 5, 6 g 59.19 11 7.887 23.76 73.7 3.0 34.088 84.286 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Proximates Sucrose 2, 3, 5, 6 g 0.45 11 0.184 0.16 0.98 3.0 -0.132 1.041 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Proximates Glucose (dextrose) 2, 3, 5, 6 g 27.75 11 3.475 11.4 34.3 3.0 16.688 38.808 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Proximates Fructose 2, 3, 5, 6 g 29.68 11 3.752 12.2 37.18 3.0 17.736 41.617 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Proximates Lactose 2, 3 g 0.00 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Proximates Maltose 2, 3 g 0.00 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Proximates Galactose 2, 3 g 0.00 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Proximates Starch 2, 3 g 2.70 2 -- 0 5.41 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Minerals Calcium, Ca 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 mg 50 42 1.383 32 63 12.0 46.748 52.777 13 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Minerals Iron, Fe 1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 mg 1.88 43 0.057 1.13 2.84 13.0 1.76 2.008 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Minerals Magnesium, Mg 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 mg 32 42 0.421 27 38 12.0 31.347 33.181 13 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Minerals Phosphorus, P 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 mg 101 42 1.327 74 113 12.0 98.086 103.87 13 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Minerals Potassium, K 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 mg 749 42 7.719 584 862 12.0 731.889 765.527 13 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Minerals Sodium, Na 1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 mg 11 41 0.681 6 19 13.0 9.658 12.599 14 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Minerals Zinc, Zn 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 mg 0.22 40 0.009 0.12 0.34 12.0 0.196 0.237 13 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Minerals Copper, Cu 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 mg 0.318 42 0.009 0.23 0.43 12.0 0.299 0.338 13 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Minerals Manganese, Mn 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 mg 0.299 42 0.004 0.23 0.35 12.0 0.29 0.307 13 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Minerals Selenium, Se 2, 3 µg 0.6 8 0.056 0.4 1 5.0 0.479 0.77 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Minerals Fluoride, F 3 µg 233.9 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2006
Vitamins Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid 1, 2, 3 mg 2.3 6 1.159 0.7 4.6 2.0 -2.638 7.335 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Thiamin 2, 3 mg 0.106 8 0.004 0.08 0.13 5.0 0.095 0.116 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Riboflavin 2, 3 mg 0.125 8 0.012 0.01 0.3 3.0 0.086 0.164 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Niacin 2, 3 mg 0.766 8 0.065 0.49 1.33 3.0 0.569 0.962 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Pantothenic acid 2, 3 mg 0.095 8 0.009 0.05 0.18 3.0 0.068 0.123 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Vitamin B-6 2, 3 mg 0.174 8 0.006 0.1 0.26 3.0 0.156 0.191 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Folate, total 2 µg 5 4 0.482 4 6 3.0 3.42 6.488 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Folic acid µg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 01/2001
Vitamins Folate, food µg 5 4 0.482 4 6 3.0 3.42 6.488 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/2010
Vitamins Folate, DFE µg 5 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 08/2010
Vitamins Choline, total 2, 3 mg 11.1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2006
Vitamins Betaine 2, 3 mg 0.3 2 -- 0.2 0.4 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2006
Vitamins Vitamin B-12 µg 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/1982
Vitamins Vitamin B-12, added µg 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/2004
Vitamins Vitamin A, RAE 2, 3 µg 0 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Retinol µg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/2002
Vitamins Carotene, beta 2, 3 µg 0 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Carotene, alpha 2, 3 µg 0 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Cryptoxanthin, beta 2, 3 µg 0 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Vitamin A, IU 2, 3 IU 0 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Lycopene 2, 3 µg 0 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Lutein + zeaxanthin 2, 3 µg 0 8 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 2, 4 mg 0.12 5 0.027 0.05 0.18 4.0 0.043 0.193 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Vitamin E, added mg 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/2004
Vitamins Tocopherol, beta 2, 4 mg 0.00 5 0.000 0 0 4.0 -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Tocopherol, gamma 2, 4 mg 0.04 5 0.010 0.02 0.06 4.0 0.017 0.071 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Tocopherol, delta 2, 4 mg 0.00 5 0.000 0 0 4.0 -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Vitamins Vitamin D (D2 + D3) µg 0.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 11/2008
Vitamins Vitamin D IU 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 02/2009
Vitamins Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 2, 3, 20 µg 3.5 9 1.080 1.7 7.3 2.0 -1.181 8.111 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids Fatty acids, total saturated g 0.058 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 08/2010
Lipids 4:0 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 10/2002
Lipids 6:0 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 10/2002
Lipids 8:0 2, 3 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 10:0 2, 3 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 12:0 2, 3 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 1.0 -0.003 0.003 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 14:0 2, 3 g 0.001 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 15:0 2, 3 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 16:0 2, 3 g 0.044 4 0.001 0.03 0.06 1.0 0.034 0.053 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 17:0 2, 3 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 18:0 2, 3 g 0.010 4 0.000 0.01 0.01 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 20:0 2, 3 g 0.001 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 22:0 2, 3 g 0.002 4 0.000 0 0 1.0 -0.001 0.005 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids Fatty acids, total monounsaturated g 0.051 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 08/2010
Lipids 14:1 2, 3 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 15:1 2, 3 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 16:1 undifferentiated 2, 3 g 0.039 4 0.000 0 0.08 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 17:1 2, 3 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 18:1 undifferentiated 2, 3 g 0.012 4 0.003 0.01 0.02 1.0 -0.012 0.036 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 20:1 2, 3 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 22:1 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 10/2002
Lipids Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated g 0.037 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 08/2010
Lipids 18:2 undifferentiated 2, 3 g 0.028 4 0.003 0.02 0.04 1.0 0.005 0.051 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 18:3 undifferentiated 2, 3 g 0.008 4 0.000 0.01 0.01 1.0 0.005 0.011 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 18:3 n-6 c,c,c 2 g 0.001 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 18:4 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 10/2002
Lipids 20:2 n-6 c,c 2, 3 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 20:3 undifferentiated 2, 3 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 20:4 undifferentiated 2, 3 g 0.000 4 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Lipids 20:5 n-3 (EPA) g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 10/2002
Lipids 22:5 n-3 (DPA) g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 10/2002
Lipids 22:6 n-3 (DHA) g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 10/2002
Lipids Fatty acids, total trans g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/2015
Lipids Cholesterol mg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/1982
Amino Acids Tryptophan 2, 3 g 0.050 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Threonine 2, 3 g 0.077 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Isoleucine 2, 3 g 0.057 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Leucine 2, 3 g 0.096 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Lysine 2, 3 g 0.084 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Methionine 2, 3 g 0.021 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Cystine 2, 3 g 0.019 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Phenylalanine 2 g 0.065 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/2010
Amino Acids Tyrosine 2, 3 g 0.012 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Valine 2, 3 g 0.083 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Arginine 2, 3 g 0.413 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Histidine 2, 3 g 0.072 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Alanine 2, 3 g 0.105 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Aspartic acid 2, 3 g 0.110 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Glutamic acid 2, 3 g 0.164 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Glycine 2, 3 g 0.080 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Proline 2, 3 g 0.254 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Amino Acids Serine 2, 3 g 0.070 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 10/2002
Other Alcohol, ethyl g 0.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 04/1985
Other Caffeine mg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 10/2002
Other Theobromine mg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 10/2002
Anthocyanidins Cyanidin 22, 23 mg 0.03 7 0.01 0 0.1 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Petunidin 23 mg 0.0 5 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Delphinidin 22, 23 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0.02 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Malvidin 23 mg 0.0 5 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Pelargonidin 22, 23 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0.02 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Peonidin 23 mg 0.0 5 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Catechin 23, 24 mg 0.4 7 0.42 0 2.97 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 23, 24 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 23, 24 mg 0.1 7 0.1 0 0.71 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 3-gallate 23, 24 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate 23, 24 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Gallocatechin 23, 24 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavanones Hesperetin 23 mg 0.0 6 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavanones Naringenin 23 mg 0.0 6 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Apigenin 22, 23 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0.01 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Luteolin 22, 23 mg 0.0 4 0 0 0.02 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Kaempferol 22 mg 0.0 2 -- 0.01 0.01 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Myricetin 22, 23 mg 0.0 7 0 0 0.03 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Quercetin 22, 23 mg 0.2 7 0.24 0 1.7 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Daidzein 25, 26, 27 mg 0.03 3 0.03 0 0.06 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Genistein 25, 26, 27 mg 0.05 3 0.06 0.01 0.12 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Glycitein 27 mg 0.00 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Total isoflavones 25, 26, 27 mg 0.08 3 0.09 0.01 0.18 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Biochanin A mg 0.00 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Formononetin mg 0.00 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Coumestrol mg 0.00 2 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin dimers 21 mg 0.0 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin trimers 21 mg 0.0 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 4-6mers 21 mg 0.0 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 7-10mers 21 mg 0.0 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin polymers (>10mers) 21 mg 0.0 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --

Sources of Data

1Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Study on Labeling , 1996    
2Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 5f , 2001  Beltsville MD  
3Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 5L , 2001  Beltsville MD  
4Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA NDL Report Vitamin E 1991 , 1991  Beltsville MD  
5W.J. Hurst, R.A. Martin, B.L. Zoumas Application of HPLC to Characterization of Individual Carbohydrates in Foods , 1979 Journal of Food Science 44   pp.892-893
6Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA Dietary Fiber and Sugars in Commonly Consumed Foods , 1994  Beltsville MD  
7J Marlett Content and composition of dietary fiber in 117 frequently consumed foods , 1992 Journal of the American Dietetic Association 92 2  
8N Vollendorf, J Marlett Dietary Fiber Content and Composition in Home-Prepared and Commercially Baked Products: Analysis and Prediction , 1994 Cereal Chemistry 71 1   pp.99-105
9Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1995    
10Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1996    
11Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1997    
12Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1998    
13Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1999    
14Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1991    
15Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1992    
16Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1989    
17Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1990    
18Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1993    
19Food and Drug Administration (FDA), DHHS FDA Total Diet Study , 1994    
20S.L. Booth, J.A. Sadowski, J.A. T. Pennington Phylloquinone (Vitamin K) Content of Foods in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study , 1995 Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43 6   pp.1574-1579
21Gu, L., Kelm, M.A., Hammerstone, J.F., Beecher, G., Holden, J., Haytowitz, D., Gebhardt, S., and Prior, R.L. Screening foods containing proanthocyanidins and their structural characterization using LC-MS/MS and thiolytic degradation , 2003 J. Agric. Food Chem. 51   pp.7513-7521
22Franke, A.A., Custer, L.J., Arakaki, C., and Murphy, S.P. Vitamin C and flavonoid levels of fruits and vegetables consumed in Hawaii. , 2004 J. Food Comp. Anal. 17   pp.1-35
23Harnly, J. M., Doherty, R., Beecher, G. R., Holden, J. M., Haytowitz, D. B., and Bhagwat, S., and Gebhardt S. Flavonoid content of U.S. fruits, vegetables, and nuts , 2006 J. Agric. Food Chem. 54   pp.9966-9977
24Arts, I. C. W., van de Putte, B., and Hollman, P. C. H. Catechin content of foods commonly consumed in the Netherlands. 1. Fruits, vegetables, staple foods and processed foods. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.1746-1751
25Horn-Ross, P. L., Barnes, S., Lee, M., Coward, L., Mandel, E., Koo, J., John, E. M., and Smith, M. Assesing phytoestrogen exposure in epidemiologic studies: development of a database (United States). , 2000 Cancer Causes and Control 11   pp.289-298
26Liggins, J., Bluck, L. J. C., Runswick, S., Atkinson, C., Coward, W. A., Bingham, S. A. Daidzein and genistein content of fruits and nuts. , 2000 J. Nutr. Biochem. 11   pp.326-331
27Thompson, L. U., Boucher, B. A., Liu, Z., Cotterchio, M., and Kreiger, N. Phytoestrogen content of foods consumed in Canada, including isoflavones, lignans, and coumestan. , 2006 Nutr. Cancer 54   pp.184-201