United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service

National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28
Statistics Report:  09003, Apples, raw, with skin a  b 
heading Nutrient Unit Value (100g) Data Points Std. Error Min Max df LB UB # Studies Source NDB Ref Last Modified
Proximates Water 1, 2, 3, 4 g 85.56 38 0.241 82.39 87.52 3.0 84.775 86.346 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Proximates Energy kcal 52 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 05/2007
Proximates Energy kJ 218 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 05/2007
Proximates Protein 1, 2, 3 g 0.26 29 0.019 0.17 0.57 3.0 0.209 0.32 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Proximates Total lipid (fat) 1, 2, 3, 4 g 0.17 35 0.011 0.05 0.31 3.0 0.137 0.212 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Proximates Ash 1, 2, 3 g 0.19 29 0.018 0.07 0.48 4.0 0.136 0.245 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Proximates Carbohydrate, by difference g 13.81 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 05/2007
Proximates Fiber, total dietary 1, 2, 3 g 2.4 29 0.276 1.4 3.5 4.0 1.584 3.118 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Proximates Sugars, total 2, 3 g 10.39 25 0.112 8.77 12.01 5.0 10.099 10.68 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Proximates Sucrose 2, 3 g 2.07 25 0.049 0.78 3.53 5.0 1.944 2.19 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Proximates Glucose (dextrose) 2, 3 g 2.43 25 0.031 1.45 3.66 4.0 2.337 2.518 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Proximates Fructose 2, 3 g 5.90 25 0.059 4.63 6.63 4.0 5.727 6.063 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Proximates Lactose 2, 3 g 0.00 25 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Proximates Maltose 2, 3 g 0.00 25 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Proximates Galactose 2, 3 g 0.00 25 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Proximates Starch 3 g 0.05 10 0.000 0.05 0.05 -- -- -- 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Minerals Calcium, Ca 1, 2, 3, 5 mg 6 26 0.340 4 9 5.0 5.039 6.776 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Minerals Iron, Fe 1, 3, 5 mg 0.12 16 0.009 0.09 0.18 2.0 0.074 0.173 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Minerals Magnesium, Mg 1, 2, 3, 5 mg 5 26 0.073 4 6 4.0 4.991 5.39 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Minerals Phosphorus, P 1, 2, 3 mg 11 23 0.337 10 13 3.0 10.124 12.284 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Minerals Potassium, K 1, 2, 3, 5 mg 107 26 2.211 88 136 6.0 101.636 112.293 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Minerals Sodium, Na 1, 5 mg 1 6 0.071 1 2 1.0 0.363 2.17 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Minerals Zinc, Zn 1, 2, 3, 5 mg 0.04 26 0.004 0.01 0.08 7.0 0.027 0.047 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Minerals Copper, Cu 3, 5 mg 0.027 13 0.001 0.02 0.04 2.0 0.021 0.034 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Minerals Manganese, Mn 1, 2, 3, 5 mg 0.035 26 0.002 0.03 0.06 4.0 0.03 0.04 4 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Minerals Selenium, Se 2, 3 µg 0.0 7 0.000 0 0.1 1.0 0.02 0.022 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Minerals Fluoride, F 2 µg 3.3 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/2006
Vitamins Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid 1 mg 4.6 3 0.470 4 5.5 2.0 2.543 6.59 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Vitamins Thiamin 1, 2, 3 mg 0.017 23 0.002 0.01 0.03 4.0 0.011 0.023 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Riboflavin 2, 3 mg 0.026 20 0.004 0.01 0.05 2.0 0.01 0.042 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Niacin 1, 3 mg 0.091 13 0.006 0.07 0.13 1.0 0.01 0.172 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Pantothenic acid 1, 2, 3 mg 0.061 23 0.012 0.03 0.13 3.0 0.022 0.099 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Vitamin B-6 1, 2, 3 mg 0.041 23 0.001 0.03 0.06 3.0 0.038 0.044 3 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Folate, total µg 3 23 0.611 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/2003
Vitamins Folic acid µg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 01/2001
Vitamins Folate, food µg 3 23 0.611 -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Vitamins Folate, DFE µg 3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 02/2008
Vitamins Choline, total 3 mg 3.4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/2006
Vitamins Betaine 3 mg 0.1 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/2006
Vitamins Vitamin B-12 µg 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/1982
Vitamins Vitamin B-12, added µg 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/2004
Vitamins Vitamin A, RAE 2, 3 µg 3 14 0.155 1 7 2.0 1.821 3.62 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Retinol µg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/2002
Vitamins Carotene, beta 2, 3 µg 27 14 1.662 11 81 1.0 15.621 39.066 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Carotene, alpha 2, 3 µg 0 14 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/2003
Vitamins Cryptoxanthin, beta 2, 3 µg 11 14 0.926 0 16 2.0 6.208 15.015 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Vitamin A, IU 2, 3 IU 54 14 3.108 28 135 2.0 36.424 72.406 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Lycopene 2, 3 µg 0 14 0.000 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 04/2003
Vitamins Lutein + zeaxanthin 2, 3 µg 29 14 1.132 11 73 4.0 26.402 32.551 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 3, 4 mg 0.18 10 -- 0.08 0.38 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Vitamin E, added mg 0.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/2004
Vitamins Tocopherol, beta 3, 4 mg 0.00 10 -- 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Tocopherol, gamma 3, 4 mg 0.00 10 -- 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Tocopherol, delta 3, 4 mg 0.00 10 -- 0 0 -- -- -- 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Vitamins Vitamin D (D2 + D3) µg 0.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 11/2008
Vitamins Vitamin D IU 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 02/2009
Vitamins Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 2, 3 µg 2.2 20 0.079 0.9 4.3 4.0 1.97 2.431 2 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 06/2003
Lipids Fatty acids, total saturated g 0.028 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 05/2007
Lipids 4:0 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 6:0 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 8:0 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 10:0 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 12:0 g 0.000 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 14:0 g 0.001 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 16:0 g 0.024 4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 18:0 g 0.003 4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids Fatty acids, total monounsaturated g 0.007 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 05/2007
Lipids 16:1 undifferentiated g 0.000 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 18:1 undifferentiated g 0.007 4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 20:1 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 22:1 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated g 0.051 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 05/2007
Lipids 18:2 undifferentiated g 0.043 4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 18:3 undifferentiated g 0.009 4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 18:4 g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 20:4 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 20:5 n-3 (EPA) g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 22:5 n-3 (DPA) g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids 22:6 n-3 (DHA) g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/2007
Lipids Fatty acids, total trans g 0.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/2015
Lipids Cholesterol mg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 08/1982
Lipids Phytosterols mg 12 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 08/1982
Amino Acids Tryptophan 3 g 0.001 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Threonine 3 g 0.006 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Isoleucine 3 g 0.006 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Leucine 3 g 0.013 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Lysine 3 g 0.012 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Methionine 3 g 0.001 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Cystine 3 g 0.001 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Phenylalanine 3 g 0.006 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Tyrosine 3 g 0.001 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Valine 3 g 0.012 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Arginine 3 g 0.006 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Histidine 3 g 0.005 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Alanine 3 g 0.011 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Aspartic acid 3 g 0.070 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Glutamic acid 3 g 0.025 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Glycine 3 g 0.009 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Proline 3 g 0.006 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Amino Acids Serine 3 g 0.010 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 09/2002
Other Alcohol, ethyl g 0.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 04/1985
Other Caffeine mg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 01/2001
Other Theobromine mg 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 01/2001
Anthocyanidins Cyanidin 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 mg 1.57 95 0.28 0 15.42 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Petunidin 17 mg 0.0 20 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Delphinidin 16, 17 mg 0.0 24 0 0 0.02 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Malvidin 17 mg 0.0 20 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Pelargonidin 16, 17 mg 0.0 24 0 0 0.02 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Peonidin 17, 21 mg 0.0 22 0.01 0 0.28 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Catechin 15, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25 mg 1.3 140 0.07 0 5.1 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 17, 22, 23 mg 0.3 59 0.07 0 2.51 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 mg 7.5 150 0.44 0.8 19.16 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 3-gallate 17, 22, 23 mg 0.0 59 0 0 0.19 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate 17, 22, 23 mg 0.2 59 0.11 0 6.26 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Gallocatechin 17, 22, 23 mg 0.0 59 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavanones Hesperetin 17 mg 0.0 19 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavanones Naringenin 17 mg 0.0 19 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Apigenin 16, 17, 27, 28, 29, 30 mg 0.0 51 0 0 0.01 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Luteolin 16, 17, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 mg 0.1 42 0.08 0 2.7 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Kaempferol 16, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33 mg 0.1 37 0.07 0 2.67 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Myricetin 16, 17, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 mg 0.0 53 0 0 0.03 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Quercetin 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 mg 4.0 139 0.12 0 11.47 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Daidzein 35, 36, 37 mg 0.00 5 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Genistein 35, 36, 37 mg 0.00 5 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Glycitein 37 mg 0.00 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Total isoflavones 35, 36, 37 mg 0.00 5 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Formononetin mg 0.00 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Isoflavones Coumestrol mg 0.00 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin dimers 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 mg 13.2 185 13.06 1.02 105.81 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin trimers 8, 9, 10 mg 8.0 39 3.18 2.88 23.2 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 4-6mers 9, 10 mg 24.7 27 7.94 11.6 49.5 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 7-10mers 9, 10 mg 19.2 27 7.49 4.3 39.26 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin polymers (>10mers) 9, 10 mg 28.8 27 13.27 5.2 59.93 -- -- -- -- -- --

Sources of Data

1Produce Marketing Association (PMA) Nutrient Content of Apple , 1990    
2Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 5j , 2001  Beltsville MD  
3Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 5b , 2000  Beltsville MD  
4Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA NDL Report Vitamin E 1997 , 1997  Beltsville MD  
5N.J. Miller-Ihli Atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry for the determination of the trace element content of selected fruits consumed in the United States , 1996 Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 9 4   pp.301-311
6Bouayed, J., Dueber, H., Hoffman, L., and Bohn, T. Bioaccessible and dialyzable polyphenols in selected apple varieties following in vitro gigestion vs. their native patterns , 2012 Food Chem. 131   pp.1466-1472
7Ceymann, M., Arrigoni, E., Schärer, H., Bozzi, A., and Hurrell, R.F. Identification of apples rich in health-promoting flava-3-ols and phenolic acids by measuring the polyphenol profile , 2012 J. Food Comp. Anal. 26   pp.128-135
8de Pascual-Teresa, S., Santos-Buelga, C., and Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C. Quantitative analysis of flavan-3-ols in Spanish foodstuffs and beverages , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.5331-5337
9Gu, L., Kelm, M.A., Hammerstone, J.F., Beecher, G., Holden, J., Haytowitz, D., Gebhardt, S., and Prior, R.L. Concentrations of proanthocyanidins in common foods and estimations of normal consumption , 2004 J. Nutr. 134   pp.613-617
10Hellström, Törrönen, A.R., and Matilla, P.H. Proanthocyanidins in common food products of plant origin , 2009 J. Agric. Food Chem. 57   pp.7899-7906
11Lee, K.W., Kim, Y.J., Kim, D-O., Lee, H.J., and lee C.Y. Major phenolics in apple and their contribution to the total antioxidant capacity , 2003 J. Agric. Food Chem. 57   pp.6516-6520
12Panzella, L., Petriccione, M., Rega, P., Scortichini, M., and Napolitano, A. A reappraisal of traditional apple cultivars from Southern Italy as a rich source of phenols with superior antioxidant activity , 2013 Food Chem. 140   pp.672-679
13Valvanidis, A., Vlachogianni, T., Psomas, A., Zovoili, A., and Siatis, V. Polyphenolic profile and antioxidant activity of five apple cultivars grown under organic and conventional agricultural practices , 2009 Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 44   pp.1167-1175
14Vrhovsek, U., Rigo, A., Tonon, D., and Mattivi, F. Quantitation of polyphenols in different apple varieties , 2004 J. Agric. Food Chem. 52   pp.6532-6538
15Arabbi, P. R., Genovese, M. I., and Lajolo, F. M. Flavonoids in vegetable foods commonly consumed in Brazil and estimated ingestion by the Brazilian population. , 2004 J. Agric. Food Chem. 52 5   pp.1124-1131
16Franke, A.A., Custer, L.J., Arakaki, C., and Murphy, S.P. Vitamin C and flavonoid levels of fruits and vegetables consumed in Hawaii. , 2004 J. Food Comp. Anal. 17   pp.1-35
17Harnly, J. M., Doherty, R., Beecher, G. R., Holden, J. M., Haytowitz, D. B., and Bhagwat, S., and Gebhardt S. Flavonoid content of U.S. fruits, vegetables, and nuts , 2006 J. Agric. Food Chem. 54   pp.9966-9977
18Valavanidis, A., Vlachogianni, T., Psomas, A., Zovoili, A., and Siatis, V. Polyphenolic profile and antioxidant activity of five apple cultivars grown under organic and conventional agricultural practices. , 2009 Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 144   pp.1167-1175
19van der Sluis, A.A., Dekker, M., de Jager, A., and Jongen, W.M.F. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple: Effect of cultivar, harvest year, and storage conditions. , 2001 J. Agric. Food Chem. 49 8   pp.3606-3613
20Vrhovsek, U., Rigo, A., Tonon, D., and Mattivi, F. Quantitation of polyphenols in different apple varieties. , 2004 J. Agric. Food Chem. 52   pp.6532-6538
21Wu, X., Beecher, G. R., Holden, J. M., Haytowitz, D. B., Gebhardt, S. E., and Prior, R. L. Concentrations of anthocyanins in common foods in the United States and estimation of normal consumption. , 2006 J. Agric. Food Chem. 54   pp.4069-4075
22Arts, I. C. W., van de Putte, B., and Hollman, P. C. H. Catechin content of foods commonly consumed in the Netherlands. 1. Fruits, vegetables, staple foods and processed foods. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.1746-1751
23de Pascual-Teresa, S., Santos-Buelga, C., & Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C. Quantitative analysis of flavan-3-ols in Spanish foodstuffs and beverages. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.5331-5337
24Dragovic-Uzelac, V., Pospisil, J., Levaj, B., and Delonga, K. The study of phenolic profiles of raw apricots and apples and their purees by HPLC for the evaluation of apricot nectars and jams authenticity. , 2005 Food Chemistry 91   pp.373-383
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26Lee, K.W., Kim, Y.J., Kim, D-O., Lee, H.J., and Lee, C.Y. Major phenolics in apple and their contribution to the total antioxidant capacity , 2003 J. Agric. Food Chem. 51   pp.6516-6520
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33Mattila, P., Astola, J., and Kumpulainen, J. Determination of flavonoids in plant material by HPLC with diode-array and electro-array detection. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.5834-5841
34Price, K. R., Prosser, T., Richetin, A. M. F., and Rhodes, M. J. C. A comparison of the flavonol content and composition of dessert, cooking and cider-making apples; distribution within the fruit and effect of juicing. , 1999 Food Chem. 66   pp.489-494
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Footnotes

a  Based on analytical data for red delicious, golden delicious, gala, granny smith, and fuji varieties.
b  3 and 5 pound bags of apples typically contain small and extra small sizes.