United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service

National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Legacy Release
Try FoodData Central Statistics Report:  14096, Alcoholic beverage, wine, table, red a 
heading Nutrient Unit Value (100g) Data Points Std. Error Min Max df LB UB # Studies Source NDB Ref Last Modified
Proximates Water g 86.49 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 06/01/2005
Proximates Energy kcal 85 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Proximates Energy kJ 356 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Proximates Protein 1 g 0.07 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 07/01/2005
Proximates Total lipid (fat) 1 g 0.00 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Proximates Ash 2 g 0.28 1300 0.002 0.1 0.53 1299.0 0.27 0.27 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Proximates Carbohydrate, by difference g 2.61 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2005
Proximates Fiber, total dietary 1 g 0.0 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Proximates Sugars, total 1 g 0.62 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Minerals Calcium, Ca 1 mg 8 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Minerals Iron, Fe 1 mg 0.46 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Minerals Magnesium, Mg 1 mg 12 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Minerals Phosphorus, P 1 mg 23 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Minerals Potassium, K 1 mg 127 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Minerals Sodium, Na 1 mg 4 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Minerals Zinc, Zn 1 mg 0.14 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Minerals Copper, Cu 1 mg 0.011 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Minerals Manganese, Mn 1 mg 0.132 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Minerals Selenium, Se 1 µg 0.2 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Minerals Fluoride, F 1 µg 104.6 14 3.200 86.1 119.1 13.0 97.5 111.6 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Vitamins Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid 1 mg 0.0 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Vitamins Thiamin 1 mg 0.005 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Vitamins Riboflavin 1 mg 0.031 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Vitamins Niacin 1 mg 0.224 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Vitamins Pantothenic acid 1 mg 0.030 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Vitamins Vitamin B-6 1 mg 0.057 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Vitamins Folate, total 1 µg 1 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Vitamins Folic acid µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 01/01/2001
Vitamins Folate, food µg 1 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2005
Vitamins Folate, DFE µg 1 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Vitamins Choline, total mg 5.7 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Betaine mg 0.3 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2006
Vitamins Vitamin B-12 1 µg 0.00 1 -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Vitamins Vitamin B-12, added µg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Vitamins Vitamin A, RAE µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Vitamins Retinol µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 06/01/2002
Vitamins Carotene, beta µg 1 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Vitamins Carotene, alpha µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Vitamins Cryptoxanthin, beta µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Vitamins Vitamin A, IU IU 2 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Vitamins Lycopene µg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Vitamins Lutein + zeaxanthin µg 6 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Vitamins Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) mg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Vitamins Vitamin E, added mg 0.00 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Vitamins Vitamin D (D2 + D3) µg 0.0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 11/01/2008
Vitamins Vitamin D IU 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 02/01/2009
Vitamins Vitamin K (phylloquinone) µg 0.4 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Calculated or imputed -- 03/01/2007
Lipids Fatty acids, total saturated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 4:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 6:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 8:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 10:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 12:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 14:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 16:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 18:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids Fatty acids, total monounsaturated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 16:1 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 18:1 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 20:1 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 22:1 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 18:2 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 18:3 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 18:4 g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 20:4 undifferentiated g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 20:5 n-3 (EPA) g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 22:5 n-3 (DPA) g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids 22:6 n-3 (DHA) g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Lipids Fatty acids, total trans g 0.000 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 09/01/2015
Lipids Cholesterol mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Analytical or derived from analytical -- 05/01/1986
Other Alcohol, ethyl 2 g 10.6 1300 0.020 6.4 18.9 1299.0 10.5 10.5 1 Analytical or derived from analytical -- 03/01/2005
Other Caffeine mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 03/01/2007
Other Theobromine mg 0 -- -- 0 0 -- -- -- -- Assumed zero -- 03/01/2007
Anthocyanidins Cyanidin 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 mg 0.2 91 0.06 0 4.5 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Petunidin 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 mg 2.0 147 0.14 0.02 5.66 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Delphinidin 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 mg 2.0 147 0.14 0.02 5.71 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Malvidin 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 mg 13.8 166 0.78 0 53.57 -- -- -- -- -- --
Anthocyanidins Peonidin 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 mg 1.2 147 0.08 0.02 5.03 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Catechin 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 mg 7.1 939 0.19 0 39 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 13, 15 mg 0.1 15 0.01 0 0.28 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 mg 3.8 938 0.1 0 16.5 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 3-gallate 13, 14, 15 mg 0.0 16 0.01 0 0.11 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate 13, 15 mg 0.0 15 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Gallocatechin 13, 15 mg 0.1 15 0.02 0 0.42 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavanones Hesperetin mg 0.6 2 -- 0.27 0.99 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavanones Naringenin mg 1.8 2 -- 1.03 2.51 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Apigenin 6, 23, 24 mg 0.1 24 0.02 0 0.47 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavones Luteolin 23, 24, 25, 26 mg 0.0 39 0.01 0 0.4 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Isorhamnetin 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 mg 0.0 64 0 0 0.16 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Kaempferol 7, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 mg 0.1 166 0.01 0 1.37 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Myricetin 5, 6, 7, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 mg 0.4 219 0.01 0 1.79 -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavonols Quercetin 5, 6, 7, 11, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33 mg 1.0 313 0.04 0 3.36 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin dimers 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46 mg 12.3 270 8.9 0.5 95.1 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin trimers 34, 35, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 mg 2.4 73 2.25 0.17 15.7 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 4-6mers 39, 40, 44 mg 2.5 57 1.05 0.54 8.6 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 7-10mers 39, 40 mg 3.8 3 1.95 1.3 5 -- -- -- -- -- --
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin polymers (>10mers) 39, 40 mg 8.6 3 3.79 3.8 11 -- -- -- -- -- --

Sources of Data

1Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 7b , 2002  Beltsville MD  
2Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Wine and malt beverage data from TTB , 2004  Beltsville MD  
3Andlauer, W., Stumpf, C., and F�rst, P.  Influence of the acetification process on phenolic compounds. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.3533-3536
4Dugo, P., Favoino, O., Presti, M.L.,Luppino, R., Dogo, G., and Mondello, L.  Determination of anthocyanins and related components in red wines by micro- and capillary HPLC. , 2004 J. Sep. Sci. 27   pp.1458-1466
5Frankel, E. N., Waterhouse, A. l., and Teissedre, P. L.  Principal phenolic phytochemicals in selected California wines and their antioxidant activity in inhibiting oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins. , 1995 J. Agric. Food Chem. 43   pp.890-894
6Gambelli, L., and Santorini, G.P.  Polyphenols content in some Italian red wines of different geographical origins. , 2004 J. Food Comp. Anal. 17   pp.613-618
7Ghiselli, A., Nardini, M., Baldi, A., and Scaccini, C.  Antioxidant activity of different phenolic fractions separated from an Italian red wine. , 1998 J. Agric. Food Chem. 46 2   pp.361-367
8Nyman, N. A. and Kumpulainen, J. T. Determination of anthocyanins in berries and red wine by high-performance liquid chromatography. , 2001 J. Agric. Food Chem. 49   pp.4183-4187
9Sanchez-Moreno, C., Cao, G., Ou, B., and Prior, R.L.  Anthocyanin and proanthocyanin content in selected white and red wines. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity comparison with nontraditional wines obtained from highbush blueberry. , 2003 J. Agric. Food Chem. 51   pp.4889-4896
10G�mez-Plaza, E., Gil-Mu�oz, R., L�pez-Roca , and J. M., Mart�nez, A.  Color and phenolic compounds of a young red wine as discriminanting variables of its status. , 1999 Food Res. Int. 32   pp.503-507
11Pour Nikfardjam, M. S., M�rk, L., Avar, P., Figler, M., and Ohmacht, R.  Polyphenols, anthocyanins, and trans-resveratrol in red wines from the Hungarian villainy region. , 2006 Food Chemistry 98   pp.453-462
12Teissedre, P-L., and Landrault, N.  Wine phenolics: contribution to dietary intake and bioavailability. , 2000 Food Res. Int. 33   pp.461-467
13Arts, I. C. W., van de Putte, B., and Hollman, P. C. H.  Catechin content of foods commonly consumed in the Netherlands. 2. Tea, wine, fruit juices, and chocolate milk. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.1752-1757
14de Freitas, V.A.P., Glories, Y., and Monique, A.  Developmental changes of procyanidins in grapes of red Vitis vinifera varieties and their composition in respective wines , 2000 Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 51 4   pp.397-403
15de Pascual-Teresa, S., Santos-Buelga, C., & Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C.  Quantitative analysis of flavan-3-ols in Spanish foodstuffs and beverages. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.5331-5337
16Goldberg, D.M., Karumanchiri, A., Tsang, E., and Soleas, G.J.  Catechin and epicatechin concentrations of red wines: regional and cultivar-related differences. , 1998 Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 49 1   pp.23-34
17Goldberg, D.M., Tsang, E., Karumanchiri, A., Diamandis, E.P., Doleas, G., and Ng, E.  Method to assay the concentrations of phenolic constituents of biological interest in wines. , 1996 Anal. Chem. 68   pp.1688-1694
18Mattila, P., Astola, J., and Kumpulainen, J. Determination of flavonoids in plant material by HPLC with diode-array and electro-array detection. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.5834-5841
19Rodriguez-Delgado, M.-A., Gonzalez-Hernandez, G., Conde-Gonzalez, J.-E., and Perez-Trujillo, J.-P. Principal component analysis of the polyphenol content in young red wines. , 2002 Food Chem. 78 4   pp.523-532
20Rodr�guez-Delgado, M. A., Malovan�, S., P�rez, J. P., and Borges, T.  Separation of phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography with absorbance and fluorimetric detection , 2001 J. Chromatogr. A 912   pp.249-257
21Rodr�guez-Delgado, M. A., P�rez, M. L., Corbella, R., Gonz�lez, G., Garc�a Montelongo, F. J. Optimization of the separation of phenolic compounds by micellar electokinetic capillary chromatography , 2000 J. Chromatogr. A 871   pp.427-48
22Tarola, A. M., Milano, F., and Giannetti, V. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in red wines by HPLC. , 2007 Analytical Letters 40   pp.2433-2445
23Hertog, M. G. L., Hollman, P. C. H., and van de Putte, B.  Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of tea infusions, wines, and fruit juices. , 1993 J. Agric. Food Chem. 41   pp.1242-1246
24Sampson, L., Rimm, E., Hollman, P.C.H., de Vries, J.H.M., and Katan, M.B.  Flavonol and flavone intakes in US health professionals , 2002 J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 102 10   pp.1414-1420
25Fang, F., Li, J-M., Zhang, P., Tang, K., Wang, W., Pan, Q-H., and Huang, W-D. Effects of grape veriety, harvest date, fermentation vessel and wine ageing on flavonoid concentration in res wines. , 2008 Food Res. Int. 41   pp.53-60
26Fang, F., Li, J-M., Pan, Q-H., and Huang, W-D. Determination of red wine flavonoids by HPLC and effect of aging. , 2007 Food Chemistry 101   pp.428-433
27Dugo, G., Saitta, M., Guifrida, F., Vilasi, F., and La Torre, G. L.  Determination of resveratrol and othe phenolic compounds in experimental wines from grapes subjected to different pesticide treatments , 2004 Ital. J. Food Sci. 16   pp.305-321
28Revilla, E.  Analysis of flavonol aglycones in wine extracts by high performance liquid chromatography. , 1986 Chromatographia 22   pp.1-6
29Simonetti, P., Pi�tta, P., and Testolin, G.  Polyphenol content and total antioxidant potential of selected Italian wines , 1997 J. Agric. Food Chem. 45   pp.1152-1155
30Tsanova-Savova, S., and Ribarova, F.  Free and conjugated myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol in Bulgarian red wines. , 2002 J. Food Comp. Anal 15   pp.639-645
31Vuorinen, H., M��tt�, T�rr�nen, R.  Content of the flavonols Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol in Finnish berry wines. , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.2675-2680
32Justesen, U., Knuthsen, P., and Leth, T. Quantitative analysis of flavonols, flavones, and flavonones in fruits, vegetables and beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array and mass spectrometric detection. , 1998 J. Chromatogr. A 799   pp.101-110
33Lopez, M., Martinez, F., Del Valle, C., Orte, C., and Miro, M. Analysis of phenolic constituents of biological interest in red wines by high-performance liquid chromatography. , 2001 J. Chromat. A. 922   pp.359-363
34de Freitas, V.A.P., Glories, Y., and Monique, A. Developmental changes of procyanidins in grapes of red Vitis vinifera varieties and their composition in respective wines , 2000 Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 51   pp.397-403
35de Pascual-Teresa, S., Santos-Buelga, C., and Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C. Quantitative analysis of flavan-3-ols in Spanish foodstuffs and beverages , 2000 J. Agric. Food Chem. 48   pp.5331-5337
36Fanzone, M., Pe�a-Neira, �., Jofr�, V., Assof, M., and Zamora, F.Phenolic characterization of Malbec wines from Mendoza province (Argentina) Phenolic characterization of Malbec wines from Mendoza province (Argentina) , 2010 J. Agric. Food Chem. 58   pp.2388-2397
37Ghiselli, A., Nardini, M., Baldi, A., and Scaccini, C. Antioxidant activity of different phenolic fractions separated from an Italian red wine , 1998 J. Agric. Food Chem. 46   pp.361-367
38Gomez-Plaza, E., Gil-Munoz, R., Lopez-Roca, J.M., and Martinez, A. Color and phenolic compounds of a young red wine as discriminating variables of its aging status , 1999 Food Res. Internat. 32   pp.503-507
39Gu, L., Kelm, M.A., Hammerstone, J.F., Beecher, G., Holden, J., Haytowitz, D., Gebhardt, S., and Prior, R.L. Concentrations of proanthocyanidins in common foods and estimations of normal consumption , 2004 J. Nutr. 134   pp.613-617
40Hellstr�m, T�rr�nen, A.R., and Matilla, P.H. Proanthocyanidins in common food products of plant origin , 2009 J. Agric. Food Chem. 57   pp.7899-7906
41Kovac, V., Alonso, E., Bourzeix, M., and Revilla, E. Effect of several enological practices on the content of catechins and proanthocyanidins of red wines , 1992 J. Agric. Food Chem. 40   pp.1953-1957
42Monogas, M., G�mez-Cardov�s, C., Bartolom�, B., Laureano, O., and Da Silva, J.M.R. Monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric flavan-3-ol composition of wines and grapes from Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Graciano, Tempranillo, and Cabernet Sauvignon , 2003 J. Agric. Food Chem. 51   pp.6475-6481
43Ricardo da Silva, J.M., Rosec, J-Ph., Bourziex, M., Mourgues, J., & Moutounet, M. Dimer and trimer procyanidins in Carignan and Mourvedre grapes and red wines , 1992 Vitis 31   pp.55-63
44S�nchez-Moreno, C., Cao, G., Ou, B, and Prior, R. L. Anthocyanin and proanthocyanin content in selected white and red wines. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity comparison with nontraditional wines obtained from highbush blueberry , 2003 J. Agric. Food Chem. 51   pp.4889-4896
45Teissedre, P.L. and Landrault, T. Wine phenolics: contribution to intake and bioavailability , 2000 Food Res. Int. 33   pp.461-467
46Van Leeuw, R., Kevers, C., Pincemail, J., Defraigne, J. O., and Dommes, J. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of red wines from various grape varieties: Specificity of Pinot Noir. , 2014 J. Food Comp. Anal. 36   pp.40-50

Footnotes
a  Minerals, B vitamins and vitamin C determinations were made on samples of Merlot.