United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service

National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Legacy Release
Full Report (All Nutrients):  12061, Nuts, almonds a  b 
Food Group: Nut and Seed Products
Scientific Name:  Prunus dulcis
Carbohydrate Factor: 4.07   Fat Factor:8.37   Protein Factor: 3.47   Nitrogen to Protein Conversion Factor: 5.18  
Refuse: 60%   Refuse Description:   Shells
heading Nutrient Unit
Value per 100 g
# of Data Points Std. Error
cup, whole 143 g

cup, sliced 92 g

cup, slivered 108 g

cup, ground 95 g

oz (23 whole kernels) 28.35 g

almond 1.2 g
Proximates Water 1, 2, 3 g 4.41 90 0.210 6.31 4.06 4.76 4.19 1.25 0.05
Proximates Energy kcal 579 -- -- 828 533 625 550 164 7
Proximates Energy kJ 2423 -- -- 3465 2229 2617 2302 687 29
Proximates Protein 1, 2, 3 g 21.15 91 0.110 30.24 19.46 22.84 20.09 6.00 0.25
Proximates Total lipid (fat) 1, 2, 3 g 49.93 90 0.280 71.40 45.94 53.92 47.43 14.16 0.60
Proximates Ash 1, 2, 3 g 2.97 90 0.040 4.25 2.73 3.21 2.82 0.84 0.04
Proximates Carbohydrate, by difference g 21.55 -- -- 30.82 19.83 23.27 20.47 6.11 0.26
Proximates Fiber, total dietary 1, 2, 3 g 12.5 89 0.200 17.9 11.5 13.5 11.9 3.5 0.1
Proximates Sugars, total 2, 3 g 4.35 -- -- 6.22 4.00 4.70 4.13 1.23 0.05
Proximates Sucrose 1, 2, 3 g 3.95 93 0.210 5.65 3.63 4.27 3.75 1.12 0.05
Proximates Glucose (dextrose) 1, 2, 3 g 0.17 93 0.030 0.24 0.16 0.18 0.16 0.05 0.00
Proximates Fructose 1, 2, 3 g 0.11 93 0.040 0.16 0.10 0.12 0.10 0.03 0.00
Proximates Lactose 1, 2, 3 g 0.00 93 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Proximates Maltose 1, 2, 3 g 0.04 93 0.020 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.00
Proximates Galactose 2, 3 g 0.07 88 0.020 0.10 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.02 0.00
Proximates Starch 1 g 0.72 4 0.100 1.03 0.66 0.78 0.68 0.20 0.01
Minerals Calcium, Ca 1, 2, 3 mg 269 89 7.000 385 247 291 256 76 3
Minerals Iron, Fe 1, 2, 3 mg 3.71 89 0.130 5.31 3.41 4.01 3.52 1.05 0.04
Minerals Magnesium, Mg 1, 2, 3 mg 270 88 1.000 386 248 292 256 77 3
Minerals Phosphorus, P 1, 2, 3 mg 481 88 6.000 688 443 519 457 136 6
Minerals Potassium, K 1, 2, 3 mg 733 88 16.000 1048 674 792 696 208 9
Minerals Sodium, Na 1, 2, 3 mg 1 85 0.000 1 1 1 1 0 0
Minerals Zinc, Zn 1, 2, 3 mg 3.12 86 0.060 4.46 2.87 3.37 2.96 0.88 0.04
Minerals Copper, Cu 1, 2, 3 mg 1.031 86 0.050 1.474 0.949 1.113 0.979 0.292 0.012
Minerals Manganese, Mn 1, 2, 3 mg 2.179 88 0.075 3.116 2.005 2.353 2.070 0.618 0.026
Minerals Selenium, Se 1, 2, 4, 5 µg 4.1 26 2.400 5.9 3.8 4.4 3.9 1.2 0.0
Vitamins Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid 1, 2 mg 0.0 49 0.000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Vitamins Thiamin 1, 2, 3 mg 0.205 85 0.009 0.293 0.189 0.221 0.195 0.058 0.002
Vitamins Riboflavin 1, 2, 3 mg 1.138 88 0.115 1.627 1.047 1.229 1.081 0.323 0.014
Vitamins Niacin 1, 2, 3 mg 3.618 88 0.150 5.174 3.329 3.907 3.437 1.026 0.043
Vitamins Pantothenic acid 1, 2, 3 mg 0.471 88 0.025 0.674 0.433 0.509 0.447 0.134 0.006
Vitamins Vitamin B-6 1, 2 mg 0.137 47 0.006 0.196 0.126 0.148 0.130 0.039 0.002
Vitamins Folate, total 1, 2 µg 44 41 6.000 63 40 48 42 12 1
Vitamins Folic acid µg 0 -- -- 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vitamins Folate, food µg 44 41 6.000 63 40 48 42 12 1
Vitamins Folate, DFE µg 44 -- -- 63 40 48 42 12 1
Vitamins Choline, total 4, 5 mg 52.1 -- -- 74.5 47.9 56.3 49.5 14.8 0.6
Vitamins Betaine 4, 5 mg 0.5 5 0.051 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.0
Vitamins Vitamin B-12 µg 0.00 -- -- 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Vitamins Vitamin B-12, added µg 0.00 -- -- 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Vitamins Vitamin A, RAE µg 0 -- -- 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vitamins Retinol µg 0 -- -- 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vitamins Carotene, beta 1, 2, 4, 5 µg 1 26 0.000 1 1 1 1 0 0
Vitamins Carotene, alpha 1, 4, 5 µg 0 9 0.000 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vitamins Cryptoxanthin, beta 4, 5 µg 0 8 0.000 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vitamins Vitamin A, IU 2 IU 2 -- -- 3 2 2 2 1 0
Vitamins Lycopene 4, 5 µg 0 8 0.000 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vitamins Lutein + zeaxanthin 4, 5 µg 1 8 0.000 1 1 1 1 0 0
Vitamins Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 1, 2, 3 mg 25.63 90 0.290 36.65 23.58 27.68 24.35 7.27 0.31
Vitamins Vitamin E, added mg 0.00 -- -- 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Vitamins Tocopherol, beta 1, 2, 3 mg 0.23 90 0.070 0.33 0.21 0.25 0.22 0.07 0.00
Vitamins Tocopherol, gamma 1, 2, 3 mg 0.64 90 0.070 0.92 0.59 0.69 0.61 0.18 0.01
Vitamins Tocopherol, delta 1, 2, 3 mg 0.07 88 0.040 0.10 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.02 0.00
Vitamins Vitamin D (D2 + D3) µg 0.0 -- -- 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Vitamins Vitamin D IU 0 -- -- 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vitamins Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 4, 5 µg 0.0 8 0.000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lipids Fatty acids, total saturated g 3.802 -- -- 5.437 3.498 4.106 3.612 1.078 0.046
Lipids 4:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 6:0 g 0.000 -- -- 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 8:0 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 10:0 1, 2, 3 g 0.000 68 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 12:0 1, 2, 3 g 0.000 67 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 13:0 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 14:0 1, 2, 3 g 0.003 90 0.002 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.000
Lipids 15:0 1, 2, 3 g 0.000 76 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 16:0 1, 2, 3 g 3.083 90 0.030 4.409 2.836 3.330 2.929 0.874 0.037
Lipids 17:0 1, 2, 3 g 0.004 88 0.002 0.006 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.001 0.000
Lipids 18:0 1, 2, 3 g 0.704 90 0.027 1.007 0.648 0.760 0.669 0.200 0.008
Lipids 20:0 1, 2, 3 g 0.007 90 0.003 0.010 0.006 0.008 0.007 0.002 0.000
Lipids 22:0 1, 2, 3 g 0.001 82 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000
Lipids 24:0 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids Fatty acids, total monounsaturated g 31.551 -- -- 45.118 29.027 34.075 29.973 8.945 0.379
Lipids 14:1 1, 2, 3 g 0.000 71 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 15:1 2, 3 g 0.000 66 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 16:1 undifferentiated 1, 2, 3 g 0.239 90 0.004 0.342 0.220 0.258 0.227 0.068 0.003
Lipids 16:1 c 2 g 0.227 28 -- 0.325 0.209 0.245 0.216 0.064 0.003
Lipids 16:1 t 2 g 0.012 28 -- 0.017 0.011 0.013 0.011 0.003 0.000
Lipids 17:1 2, 3 g 0.013 84 0.009 0.019 0.012 0.014 0.012 0.004 0.000
Lipids 18:1 undifferentiated 1, 2, 3 g 31.294 90 0.284 44.750 28.790 33.798 29.729 8.872 0.376
Lipids 18:1 c 2 g 31.294 33 -- 44.750 28.790 33.798 29.729 8.872 0.376
Lipids 18:1 t 2, 3 g 0.000 47 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 20:1 1, 2, 3 g 0.005 85 0.003 0.007 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.001 0.000
Lipids 22:1 undifferentiated 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 24:1 c 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated g 12.329 -- -- 17.630 11.343 13.315 11.713 3.495 0.148
Lipids 18:2 undifferentiated 1, 2, 3 g 12.324 90 0.177 17.623 11.338 13.310 11.708 3.494 0.148
Lipids 18:2 n-6 c,c 2, 3 g 12.320 61 0.269 17.618 11.334 13.306 11.704 3.493 0.148
Lipids 18:2 CLAs 2 g 0.002 7 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.000
Lipids 18:2 t not further defined 2, 3 g 0.003 58 0.002 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.000
Lipids 18:3 undifferentiated 1, 2, 3 g 0.003 90 0.002 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.000
Lipids 18:3 n-3 c,c,c (ALA) 2, 3 g 0.003 67 0.001 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.000
Lipids 18:3 n-6 c,c,c 2, 3 g 0.000 67 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 18:4 2 g 0.000 1 -- 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 20:2 n-6 c,c 1, 2, 3 g 0.002 80 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.000
Lipids 20:3 undifferentiated 1, 2 g 0.000 56 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 20:4 undifferentiated 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 20:5 n-3 (EPA) 1 g 0.000 4 -- 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 22:5 n-3 (DPA) 1 g 0.000 4 -- 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids 22:6 n-3 (DHA) 1 g 0.000 4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Lipids Fatty acids, total trans g 0.015 -- -- 0.021 0.014 0.016 0.014 0.004 0.000
Lipids Fatty acids, total trans-monoenoic g 0.012 -- -- 0.017 0.011 0.013 0.011 0.003 0.000
Lipids Cholesterol 3 mg 0 2 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lipids Stigmasterol 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 mg 4 82 0.000 6 4 4 4 1 0
Lipids Campesterol 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 mg 5 82 0.000 7 5 5 5 1 0
Lipids Beta-sitosterol 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 mg 130 68 6.000 186 120 140 124 37 2
Amino Acids Tryptophan 1, 3, 6 g 0.211 -- -- 0.302 0.194 0.228 0.200 0.060 0.003
Amino Acids Threonine 1, 3, 6 g 0.601 -- -- 0.859 0.553 0.649 0.571 0.170 0.007
Amino Acids Isoleucine 1, 3, 6 g 0.751 -- -- 1.074 0.691 0.811 0.713 0.213 0.009
Amino Acids Leucine 1, 3, 6 g 1.473 -- -- 2.106 1.355 1.591 1.399 0.418 0.018
Amino Acids Lysine 1, 3, 6 g 0.568 -- -- 0.812 0.523 0.613 0.540 0.161 0.007
Amino Acids Methionine 1, 3, 6 g 0.157 -- -- 0.225 0.144 0.170 0.149 0.045 0.002
Amino Acids Cystine 1, 3, 6 g 0.215 -- -- 0.307 0.198 0.232 0.204 0.061 0.003
Amino Acids Phenylalanine 1, 3, 6 g 1.132 -- -- 1.619 1.041 1.223 1.075 0.321 0.014
Amino Acids Tyrosine 1, 6 g 0.450 -- -- 0.644 0.414 0.486 0.427 0.128 0.005
Amino Acids Valine 1, 3, 6 g 0.855 -- -- 1.223 0.787 0.923 0.812 0.242 0.010
Amino Acids Arginine 1, 3, 6 g 2.465 -- -- 3.525 2.268 2.662 2.342 0.699 0.030
Amino Acids Histidine 1, 3, 6 g 0.539 -- -- 0.771 0.496 0.582 0.512 0.153 0.006
Amino Acids Alanine 1, 3, 6 g 0.999 -- -- 1.429 0.919 1.079 0.949 0.283 0.012
Amino Acids Aspartic acid 1, 3, 6 g 2.639 -- -- 3.774 2.428 2.850 2.507 0.748 0.032
Amino Acids Glutamic acid 1, 3, 6 g 6.206 -- -- 8.875 5.710 6.702 5.896 1.759 0.074
Amino Acids Glycine 1, 3, 6 g 1.429 -- -- 2.043 1.315 1.543 1.358 0.405 0.017
Amino Acids Proline 1, 3, 6 g 0.969 -- -- 1.386 0.891 1.047 0.921 0.275 0.012
Amino Acids Serine 1, 3, 6 g 0.912 -- -- 1.304 0.839 0.985 0.866 0.259 0.011
Other Alcohol, ethyl g 0.0 -- -- 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other Caffeine mg 0 -- -- 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other Theobromine mg 0 -- -- 0 0 0 0 0 0
Anthocyanidins Cyanidin 10 mg 2.5 8 0.58 3.5 2.3 2.7 2.3 0.7 0.0
Anthocyanidins Petunidin 10 mg 0.0 8 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Anthocyanidins Delphinidin 10 mg 0.0 8 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Anthocyanidins Malvidin 10 mg 0.0 8 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Anthocyanidins Pelargonidin 10 mg 0.0 8 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Anthocyanidins Peonidin 10 mg 0.0 8 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Catechin 10, 11 mg 1.3 12 0.33 1.8 1.2 1.4 1.2 0.4 0.0
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 10 mg 2.6 3 0.31 3.7 2.4 2.8 2.5 0.7 0.0
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 10, 11 mg 0.6 12 0.1 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.0
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epicatechin 3-gallate 10 mg 0.0 4 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Flavan-3-ols (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate 10 mg 0.0 2 -- 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Flavan-3-ols (+)-Gallocatechin 10 mg 0.0 4 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Flavanones Eriodictyol 11 mg 0.2 8 0.06 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
Flavanones Hesperetin 10 mg 0.0 4 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Flavanones Naringenin 10, 11, 12 mg 0.4 51 0.05 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.1 0.0
Flavones Apigenin 10 mg 0.0 8 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Flavones Luteolin 10 mg 0.0 4 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Flavonols Isorhamnetin 11, 12 mg 2.6 47 0.27 3.8 2.4 2.9 2.5 0.7 0.0
Flavonols Kaempferol 11, 12 mg 0.4 47 0.04 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.0
Flavonols Myricetin 10 mg 0.0 8 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Flavonols Quercetin 10, 11 mg 0.4 16 0.11 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.0
Isoflavones Daidzein 15, 16 mg 0.00 2 -- 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Isoflavones Genistein 15, 16 mg 0.01 2 -- 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
Isoflavones Glycitein 16 mg 0.00 1 -- 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Isoflavones Total isoflavones 15, 16 mg 0.01 2 -- 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00
Isoflavones Formononetin mg 0.00 1 -- 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Isoflavones Coumestrol mg 0.01 1 -- 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin dimers 13, 14 mg 9.3 17 3.16 13.2 8.5 10.0 8.8 2.6 0.1
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin trimers 13, 14 mg 7.6 17 2.71 10.9 7.0 8.2 7.2 2.2 0.1
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 4-6mers 13, 14 mg 27.4 17 12.67 39.2 25.2 29.6 26.0 7.8 0.3
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin 7-10mers 13, 14 mg 28.2 17 10.93 40.3 25.9 30.4 26.8 8.0 0.3
Proanthocyanidin Proanthocyanidin polymers (>10mers) 13 mg 80.3 8 28.09 114.8 73.8 86.7 76.2 22.8 1.0

Sources of Data

1Almond Board of California Nutrient Content of Almonds , 1999  Modesto CA  
2Almond Board of California Nutrient content of almonds , 2006  Modesto CA  
3Almond Board of California Nutrient Content of Almonds , 2013  Modesto CA  
4Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 5k , 2001  Beltsville MD  
5Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program Wave 5d , 2001  Beltsville MD  
6S. Ahrens, M. Venkatachalam, A.M. Mistry, K. Lapsley, S.K. Sathe Almond (Prunus ducis L.) protein quality , 2005 Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 60   pp.123-128
7K.M. Phillips, D.M. Ruggio, M. Ashraf-Khorassani Phytosterol composition of nuts and seeds commonly consumed in the United States , 2005 Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53   pp.9436-9445
8V. I. Piironen, J. Toivo, Riitta Puupponen-Pimia, A.-M. Lampi Plant sterols in vegetables, fruits and berries , 2003 Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83   pp.330-337
9L. Normen, L. Ellegard, H. Brants, P. Dutta, H. Andersson A phytosterol database: Fatty foods consumed in Sweden and the Netherlands , 2007 Jorunal of Food Composition and Analysis 20   pp.193-201
10Harnly, J. M., Doherty, R., Beecher, G. R., Holden, J. M., Haytowitz, D. B., and Bhagwat, S., and Gebhardt S.  Flavonoid content of U.S. fruits, vegetables, and nuts , 2006 J. Agric. Food Chem. 54   pp.9966-9977
11Milbury, P. E., Chen, C-Y., Dolinikowski, G. G. and Blumberg, J. B.  Determination of flovonoids and phenolics and their distribution in almonds. , 2006 J. Agric. Food Chem. 54   pp.5027-5033
12Bolling, B. W., Dolinkowski. G., Blumberg, J. B., and Chen, C.-Y. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of Calfornia almonds depend on cultivar and harvest year. , 2010 Food Chemistry 122   pp.819-825
13Gu, L., Kelm, M.A., Hammerstone, J.F., Beecher, G., Holden, J., Haytowitz, D., Gebhardt, S., and Prior, R.L. Concentrations of proanthocyanidins in common foods and estimations of normal consumption , 2004 J. Nutr. 134   pp.613-617
14Xie, L., Roto, A.V., and Bolling, B.W. Characterization of ellagitannins, gallotannins, and bound proanthocyanidins from California almond (Prunus dulci) varieties , 2012 J. Agric. Food Chem. 60   pp.12151-12156
15Liggins, J., Bluck, L. J. C., Runswick, S., Atkinson, C., Coward, W. A., Bingham, S. A.  Daidzein and genistein content of fruits and nuts. , 2000 J. Nutr. Biochem. 11   pp.326-331
16Thompson, L. U., Boucher, B. A., Liu, Z., Cotterchio, M., and Kreiger, N.  Phytoestrogen content of foods consumed in Canada, including isoflavones, lignans, and coumestan. , 2006 Nutr. Cancer 54   pp.184-201

Footnotes
a  Unroasted
b  Other phytosterols = 58 mg/100g; these include 21 mg delta 5-avenasterol, 4 mg sitostanol, 2 mg campestanol, and 32 mg other minor phytosterols.
Langual Code(s)

  • A0260 NUT OR NUT PRODUCT (US CFR)
  • A1282 1200 NUT AND SEED PRODUCTS (USDA SR)
  • B1272 ALMOND
  • C0133 SEED, SKIN PRESENT, GERM PRESENT
  • E0151 SOLID
  • F0001 EXTENT OF HEAT TREATMENT NOT KNOWN
  • G0003 COOKING METHOD NOT APPLICABLE
  • H0138 WATER REMOVED
  • J0116 DEHYDRATED OR DRIED
  • K0003 NO PACKING MEDIUM USED
  • M0001 CONTAINER OR WRAPPING NOT KNOWN
  • N0001 FOOD CONTACT SURFACE NOT KNOWN
  • P0024 HUMAN FOOD, NO AGE SPECIFICATION